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Derrick

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  1. Anthorrhiza Huxley & Jebb 1990. Anthorrhiza was published in the Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 60, 1990. The genus currently consists of nine species primarily from the Papuan (or Bird’s Tail) Peninsula in southeast Papua New Guinea and numbers of the many islands situated in the Massim an ancient Melanesian interisland trade region now part of Milne Bay Province. This places the genus quite some distance from Myrmephytum another small hydnophyte genus that conversely occupies the Bird’s Head (Vogelkop) and Bomberai Peninsulas of West Papua Province, Indonesia, which sits at the opposite north-west, end of New Guinea Island with more species in the Philippine islands to the north. No Anthorrhiza or Myrmephytum are recorded in the central New Guinea land mass that sits between, except for Huxley & Jebb’s little known Myrmephytum sp1 collected at Dalman 45 km inland from Nabire on the north-west coast of Papua Province, which is not far from the isthmus that leads to West Papua Province. Habitats range from sea level to around 3000 m. (9843 ft.) primarily in stunted undisturbed and disturbed forests on poor soils but including agricultural trees. (Huxley & Jebb 1991b.) All species have a single inflorescence in one axil at each node but this may be hidden by dense spines; flowers are 4 merous. Myrmephytum are similar but have six-merous flowers. According to Huxley & Jebb, lowland Anthorrhiza species somewhat resemble Hydnophytum while species occurring at or above 1600 m. (5249 ft.), are superficially more like Myrmecodia. A similar situation occurs among Myrmephytum. They are all extremely rare in cultivation but Dr Nicholas Plummer records one Anthorrhiza specimen “on display at the University of Oxford Botanic Garden, England”. Key to the Species of Anthorrhiza. After Huxley & Jebb 1991, amended to include * A. camilla Jebb 1993. 1a. Spines present on stem… = 2. 1b. Spines absent on stem or very few… = 6. 2a. Spines largely, but not exclusively confined to the inflorescence forming a cushion in the leaf axils. Leaves 4-10cm wide… = 3. 2b. Spines scattered on stem. Leaves usually less than 4cm wide… = 4. 3a. Inflorescence with fleshy ridges separating flower-producing tissue. Spines straight, usually dense on tuber. Corolla lobes greenish white. Anthers cream. = A. echinella. 3b. Inflorescence without ridges of tissue. Spines gently curved, usually sparse on tuber. Corolla white. Anthers blue… = A. recurvispina. 4a. Lamina less than 8cm long, stipules persistent, rounded… = A. stevensii. 4b. Lamina more than 10cm long, stipules caducous (easily shed), triangular or rounded… = 5. 5a. Stem dorsiventral, (flattened and having distinct upper and lower surfaces) more spines on upper side, spines light brown to blackish. Leaf margin crinkled. Corolla blue… = A. caerulea. 5b. Stem radially symmetrical, rarely dorsiventral. Spines golden brown. Leaf margin flat. Corolla white to greenish white… = # (This amendment includes the newest species A. camilla.) #a. Inflorescence bracts leathery, splitting regularly, apiculate, persistent. Petals with long slender lobe tips… = A. chrysacantha. #b. Inflorescence bracts papery, tearing irregularly, not apiculate, caducous (easily shed.) Petals acute-rounded… = A. camilla. (The newest species) 6a. Inflorescence covered by leathery and papery bracts. Fruit with 4-8 pyrenes… = A. bracteosa. 6b. Inflorescence sunken or covered by a dense cushion of bract hairs. Fruit with 2 pyrenes… =7. 7a. Tuber surface smooth. Leaves to 17x7cm. Inflorescence narrowly cordate in outline… = A. mitis. 7b. Tuber surface areolate (roughened by areolae). Leaves to 11x4cm. Inflorescence arch-shaped in outline... = A. areolata.
  2. Anthorrhiza caerulea C. R. Huxley & Jebb published in Blumea 36 (1) 1991. This species has densely spined, conical, horizontal-growing tubers to 35 x 15 cm. with entrance holes on tuber bottoms and apexes near stems. Stems one, rarely two, topped with particularly large leaves reaching 21 x 8.5 cm. Habitats: Lower montane forests at 2000-3000 m. (6562-9843 ft.) perched in low to high positions especially on large Antarctic Beech Nothofagus trees. Range/Records: PNG; Morobe Province, north summit of Mt Shungol, Lat. 6.8583° S, Long. 146.725° E. Also on Mt. Kaindi on roadside 200 yards below Edie Creek turning (often spelt Eddie). According to Huxley & Jebb 1991 always occupied by Anonychomyrma scrutator (as Iridomyrmex) ants, a species that does not make ant-carton. However, Maeyama, & Matsumoto (2008) report the obligatory ant occupant as a carton manufacturing Dolichoderus sp. Furthermore. “It was frequently observed that occupant ants gathered the seeds of A. caerulea and buried them in their carton trails on the bark of host trees and a DNA analysis of genetic relationships within populations revealed that plants within discrete ant territories consisted of close relatives. Therefore, it was inferred that the descendants of A. caerulea were dispersed only within the territory of a certain ant colony.” (Maeyama & Matsumoto 2008.) However, I suggest there are probably occasional longer distance distributions by birds.
  3. Excellent input Jay. Once again we seem to have examples that refuse to fit neatly into our crude human attempts to neatly pigeon-hole 'species'.
  4. Myrmecophila tibicinis (Batem.) Rolfe (Robert Allen Rolfe) published in Orchid Review 25, (1917) citing Schomburgkia tibicinis as the basionym, which was incorrect. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/118911#page/54/mode/1up The correct basionym is Epidendrum tibicinis Batem. (James Bateman) published in Edwards's Botanical Register 24, pl. 53, (1838). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/9060#page/159/mode/1up Carnevali (2009) also states that: "This beautiful species was described by James Bateman in his classic book 'The Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemala' published as pl.30, in 1843 as Schomburgkia tibicinis, from plants collected by George Ure Skinner in Guatemala. This is correct, (see http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/15471#page/105/mode/1up with a description and further notes in English.) However, Carnevali does not note that James Bateman had already published this species as an Epidendrum in (1838). Nonetheless, the same type specimen (Skinner’s) was used for both descriptions. Synonyms, Schomburgkia tibicinis var grandiflora Lindl. 1845, Cattleya tibicinis Beer 1854, Bletia tibicinis (Batem) Rchb.f 1862, Schomburgkia grandiflora (Lindl.) Sander 1901, Myrmecophila exaltata (Kraenzlin 1926, (But see Jay's note below) Laelia tibicinis (Batem. ex Lindl.) L. O. Williams 1941, Schomburgkia brysiana var intermedia H. G. Jones 1972, Schomburgkia intermedia (H. G. Jones) Withner 1993. Etymology, tibicinis means flute player, the name used because the hollow pseudobulbs were utilised as musical instruments by indigenes. Hence the common names of Flute Player's Orchid or Flute Player’s Schomburgkia. Others are Cow Horn Orchid (English); Caño (Spanish); Dac kisin, Hom Ikim and Ho Hom Bak (Mayan). Ecology/Ecophysiology. Tests on plants then accepted as Schomburgkia tibicinis showed that ants, frequent residents in the hollow pseudobulbs, fed their home plants via nutrient rich debris discarded therein. However, the interaction of resident ants with farmed mealy-bugs on host plants has also shown that the reproductive fitness of Myrmecophila species is reduced (Rico-Gray and Thien, 1989.) Therefore, there are costs as well as benefits from this mutualism. Plants identified as M. tibicinis exhibited a Carbon13 isotope ratio of -12.9%; a figure representing a strong CAM pathway. (Silvera et al. 2010.) Description, Carnevali (2007) considers that most records of M. tibicinis, including those specimens in cultivation and the orchid trade, actually refer to the newer segregate M. christinae (Carnevali and Gómez-Juárez 2001.) Carnevali found M. christinae and M. brysiana to be common in Belize but M. tibicinis to be rare. Hence older studies attributed to M. tibicinis may relate if only in part to M. christinae or other congeners. Carnevali (2009) notes: "The name Myrmecophila tibicinis (Batem.) Rolfe or its synonyms Schomburgkia tibicinis Batem., or Laelia tibicinis (Batem) L. O. Williams has been used for at least four different species of the genus Myrmecophila in southeastern Mexico and Central America. Our studies on the systematics of the group have resolved the species identities". Due to this confusion, I quote a description from the 1843 publication The Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemala that used Skinner’s type specimen of M. tibicinis, (as Schomburgkia tibicinis, see link above) hence it is accurate. "Stems tapering, hollow, deeply furrowed, from a foot to a foot and a half, (30- 45 cm.) or even two feet (60 cm.) long, bearing three or four broad, oblong, leathery leaves six inches (15 cm.) long. Flower Stem terminal, upright, terete, very long, occasionally reaching the height of ten feet (3 m.) at its extremity producing a spike of about twenty flowers; usually it is simple, but occasionally, as is represented in the figure, slightly branched. Flowers two inches and a half across, opening in succession. Sepals and petals nearly equal, very much curled, upwards of an inch long, dark chesnut brown inside, and dirty purple without. Lip three-lobed, the lateral divisions rounded at their extremities, the middle one much smaller, somewhat of a rhomboideal form, emarginate; the whole of the inside of the lip is white, with the exception of the edges, which are beautifully penciled with crimson, and five elevated yellow ridges, that pass along its centre. Column whitish brown, tipped with an emarginate anther." Authentic images here. http://www.cicy.mx/Sitios/Desde_Herbario/2009/junio/myrmecophila-tibicinis-batem-rolfe. Habitats, in the southwest of Yucatan Peninsula, a high epiphyte on the banks of little rivers in Campeche State, in the municipalities of Champoton, Palizada and Candelaria. (Carnevali et al. 2009.) Range, Mexico (Gulf Coast in a strip of rainforest in Veracruz, north Oaxaca & Chiapas States.) Belize, Guatemala, (Petén Department in the north) Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.) (Carnevali et al. 2003 & 2009.)
  5. Yes most interesting Satoshi. Both plants have masses of rather thin fibrous roots, something not seen in the few hydnophytum species I am familiar with in habitat that tend to have much fewer but thicker and longer roots. Is this type of root system something common to myrmephytums? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bukidnon
  6. I have vastly improved this post and have added more to the 2020 edition of my e/book- data base. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poikilospermum Poikilospermum cordifolium. (Barg.-Petr.) Merr. (Elmer Drew Merrill) An enumeration of plants collected in Sumatra by W. N. and C. M. Bangham, Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 8. p49 (1934) (Contr. Arnold Arbor. 8: p49 1934.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/257446#page/59/mode/1up Basionym Conocephalus cordifolius Barg.-Petr. (Bargagli-Petrucci). In Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano; e Bollettino della Societa Botanica Italiano. Florence, ser. ix. p220, t. 7, (1902). (Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 9: 220 (1902)) Not found online. Listed by P.O.W.O but not Tropicos. http://plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:856023-1 Among 42 names listed. http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=Poikilospermum Not listed http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Habit, Ecology, Infauna. “Summary. 1. The huge diversity of symbiotic associations among animals and/or plants comprises both mutualisms and parasitisms. Most symbioses between social insect species, however, involve social parasites, while mutual benefits have been only suspected for some parabiotic associations – two colonies that share a nest. 2. In the rainforest of Borneo, we studied parabiotic (essentially it means sharing nests) associations between the ants Crematogaster modiglianii and Camponotus rufifemur. Parabiotic nests were regularly found inside hollow tree trunks, most likely initiated by Cr. modiglianii. This species frequently nested without its partner, whereas we never found non‐parabiotic Ca. rufifemur nests. We experimentally investigated potential benefits, potential interference competition for food (as a probable cost), and foraging niches of both species. 3. The two species never showed aggressive interactions and amicably shared food resources. However, Cr. modiglianii had a wider temporal and spatial foraging range than Ca. rufifemur, always found baits before Ca. rufifemur and recruited more efficiently. Camponotus rufifemur probably benefited from following pheromone trails of Cr. modiglianii. In turn, Ca. rufifemur was significantly more successful in defending the nest against alien ants. Crematogaster modiglianii hence may profit from its partner’s defensive abilities. 4. In neotropical parabioses, epiphytes grown in ‘ant‐gardens’ play a crucial role in the association, e.g. by stabilization of nests. Hemiepiphytic Poikilospermum cordifolium (Cecropiaceae) (sic, it is now considered Urticaceae) seedlings and saplings frequently grew in the entrances of parabiotic nests in Borneo, obviously dispersed by the ants. In cafeteria (feeding) experiments, both parabiotic ants carried its elaiosome‐bearing seeds into the nest. However, P. cordifolium does not provide additional nest space, contrasting with neotropical (sic, and many palaeotropical ones also) ant‐gardens.” 5. The parabiotic association appears beneficial for both ant species, the main benefits being nest initiation by Cr. modiglianii and interspecific trail‐following (for Ca. rufifemur), and, in turn, nest defence by Ca. rufifemur (for Cr. modiglianii). However, Ca. rufifemur seems to be more dependent on its partner than vice versa. Menzel, F. & Blüthgen N. In, Parabiotic associations between tropical ants: equal partnership or parasitic exploitation? Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol.79 iss1, (2009) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01628.x Orivel & Leroy 2011. List as true ant garden epiphytes. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poikilospermum Range. Peninsula Thailand to W. Malesia.
  7. I am very dubious about descriptions made from one or a very few plant examples. Until a lot more field work and probably other evidence such as DNA gives us more information regarding the range (or not) of natural variations in hydnophytinae species, I think current names may mean very little. Identification for the plants in these images remains an open question.
  8. Of course otherwise known as the Spice Islands. Bacan Island (Batjan in Dutch) sits relatively close to Halmahera Island (see maps) so perhaps there should not be much regional variation in hydnophyte species even though there is a probability that after seed has arrived over longer distances by birds, symbiotic ant species take over control of local distribution as found in the study by Maeyama et al. (2000.) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maluku_Islands_en.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacan_islands Maeyama T. Matsumoto T. 2000. Genetic relationship of myrmecophyte (Anthorrhiza caerulea) individuals within and among territories of the arboreal ant (Dolichoderus sp.) detected using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Austral Ecology Vol. 25, 3, pp273- 282. Downloadable.
  9. Hello Jeff. You are missing the clues. The Ic, Bog: XXIV. on the top left of Frank's illustration has already supplied the answer. Hello Frank. This is impressive detective work. Is it possible for others of us to get digitized copies of Ic. Bog. (myrmecophyte info?) from the WWW.
  10. "BECCARI described three species of this group: H. tortuosum Becc., H. petiolatum Becc., both from New Guinea, and H. ovatum Miq. from the island of Ternate. I have already added two new species: H. bracteatum VAL. and H. Kochii VAL. (see New Guinea part VIII, third volume, 1911). The sixth species that I have described was gathered by Mr. SMITH in the island of Batjan and has been cultivated for some time in the botanical garden where it grew very well despite its being damaged. Therefore, the description is based on herbarium specimens. It is easy to see that this species has much in common with H. ovatum Miq. and maybe even more with H. tortuosum (see BECC. table. 37, figs. 3 and 4 that are nearly identical with mine)." If living material was used, then Theodoric Valeton certainly could describe salient features of the external tuber.) The Tropicos database notes that no type has been designated. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/100204745
  11. Records of Moluccas Island Hydnophytum collections. H. inerme (Gaudichaud-Beaupré) Bremekamp in Blumea 5, 1942, synonym H. gaudichaudii (Gaudich.) Beccari, in Malesia Raccolta 2, 1884, basionym Myrmecodia inermis Gaudich,in Botanique 472,1830. However, this is almost certainly an unrecorded (?) synonym for H. formicarum which surely does not fit this most unusual specimen? H. ovatum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4:257 (1869) Beccari Malesia 2:p143 (1885). Type:- Ternate, Moluccas. Teysmann & de Vriese sn. (L) Leaves are ovate, cordate at base and probably small; therefore, this seems a very unlikely match. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum Vol xxvi. p26 (1945.) states, flowers are inclosed in alveoli. H. spathulatum Valeton, Icones Bogoriensis t.340 (1912). Type:- Batjan, Moluccas. Smith sn. 2/9/1900 (BO). Not all leaves are spathulate in these images. Icones Bogoriensis does not appear to be digitized, so I have no further information. H. moseleyanum Becc, Malesia 2:150 (1885). [Figs. 3.1, 5.1] Type: Manus Is. Papua New Guinea. Moseley sn. 3/1875 (K) Surely not a match?
  12. In summation, I am confident that this is S. thekii. For future visitors to the Des Voeux Peak track, note the very low altitudes for this species occurrence. The plant in the above photo can be seen on ones right hand side (when traveling upward) and it is obviously wise to thoroughly check the very first forest patches for this particularly rare species. Unfortunately, much of this lower altitude forest has been decimated by the locals, so the survival of this species is probably severely threatened. The other two species are quite common, most especially S. imberbis, with some specimens on one's left side a little further along positioned near head height. There is more information here in special edition 3. http://xerophilia.ro/
  13. Anthorrhiza bracteosa.jpg]
  14. Anthorrhiza Huxley & Jebb 1990. Anthorrhiza was published in the Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 60, 1990. The genus currently consists of nine species primarily from the Papuan (or Bird’s Tail) Peninsula in southeast Papua New Guinea and numbers of the many islands situated in the Massim an ancient Melanesian inter-island trade region now part of Milne Bay Province. This places the genus quite some distance from Myrmephytum another small hydnophyte genus that conversely occupies the Bird’s Head (Vogelkop) and Bomberai Peninsulas of West Papua Province, Indonesia, which sits at the opposite north-west, end of New Guinea Island with more species occurring in the Philippine islands to the north. No Anthorrhiza or Myrmephytum are recorded in the central New Guinea land mass that sits between, except for Huxley & Jebb’s little known Myrmephytum sp1 collected at Dalman 45 km inland from Nabire on the north-west coast of Papua Province, which is not far from the isthmus that leads to West Papua Province. Habitats range from sea level to around 3000 m. (9843 ft.) primarily in stunted undisturbed and disturbed forests on poor soils including agricultural trees. (Huxley & Jebb 1991b.) All species have a single inflorescence in one axil at each node but this may be hidden by dense spines; flowers are 4 merous. Myrmephytum are similar but have six merous flowers. According to Huxley & Jebb, lowland Anthorrhiza species somewhat resemble Hydnophytum, while species occurring at or above 1600 m. (5249 ft.), are superficially more like Myrmecodia. A similar situation occurs among Myrmephytum. They are all extremely rare in cultivation but Dr Nicholas Plummer records one Anthorrhiza specimen “on display at the University Of Oxford Botanic Garden, England”. I have yet (I hope) to photograph any of these plants in habitat, so the best I can do is submit a few drawings that will show the variation of species.
  15. M. tuberosa “dahlii.” Tubers horizontal to pendulous, irregularly conical or cylindrical, pale grey-brown and reaching 25 x 20 cm. Spines sparse to numerous, mostly placed on ridges; entrance holes to 5 mm across, placed in arcs around pored internal honeycombed areas. Stems one to several, pendent to slightly curving upwards, occasionally branched near the base and reaching 30x1.5 cm with indistinct clypeoli to 2x1 cm. Spines quite dense around circular alveoli; fruit red, seed 4-6. Habitats: Disturbed and undisturbed forests as well as plantation forests of Cocoa, Balsa or Coconut where they are mostly low perched at altitudes from sea level to 1000 m. (3281 ft.) In native forests they are often high perched. Range: New Britain Island; I found them to be very common on the Gazelle Peninsula often in the deep shade of Cocoa and Balsa tree plantations where photography was a little challenging. This form also occurs on nearby New Ireland Island where in southern regions it grades into the large “salomonensis” Solomon Islands form. It was frequently accompanied with a variety of Dischidia and orchid species. The Gazelle Peninsula experiences a more pronounced dry season than does the central east side of Bougainville Island, the most northerly of the Solomon Islands, the area I visited. Abbreviated from Huxley & Jebb 1993
  16. 34 Myrmecodia tuberosa "dahlii" Kokopo, Gazelle Peninsula, East New Britain Island, PNG..JPG]
  17. Melastomataceae. Monolena primuliflora Joseph Dalton Hooker (Hook. f.) published in Botanical Magazine 96: t5818, 1870 as primulaeflora. Synonym Bertolonia primuliflora. Range Central America; Costa Rica, Panama. South America; Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil. A caudiciform terrestrial forest species that produces food bodies to attract ants. It is reputedly very sensitive to drought and requires warmth and shade. There is very little ecological information available in English, perhaps Portugese or Spanish linguists can find more?
  18. I post these in the hope that interest can be created in the Americas to induce more inputs.. Solanaceae (Potato Family.) Tribe Juanulloeae. The tribe Juanulloeae consisted of nine genera of rarely collected, epiphytic shrubs and small trees: Juanulloa, Markea, Schultesianthus, Trianaea, Dyssochroma, Hawkesiophyton, Rahowardiana, Ectozoma, and Merinthopodium. A cladistic study of the relationships of these species has reduced the number of genera to six, Dyssochroma, Juanulloa, Markea, Merinthopodium, Schultesianthus, and Trianaea. Also included is the genus Solandra, which was treated as a separate tribe, Solandreae. (Knapp et al. 1997.) Juanulloa and Markea (now including the former Ectozoma and Hawkesiophyton) are probably the only genera of interest herein. They are Mexican to tropical South American members of the potato family but I can find little information about what seems to be a poorly studied group of plants; however, a number of species are recorded as ant-garden inhabitants and some have hollow stems regularly occupied by ants thus are ant-house species. (McBride, J. Flora of Peru 1849.) (Benzing 1990.) (Knapp 1997.) Markea, Louis Claude Marie Richard published in Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, 1792. Type Markea coccinea Richard. These are sparsely branched epiphytes that often grow in ant gardens, Some species have short to greatly elongate swollen stems that are hollow between internodes where they often shelter ant colonies, consequently these are ant-house species. Markea camponoti Walter Adolpho Ducke published in Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, 1915. A species regularly associated with Camponotus femoratus ants. Range: Brazil. Markea formicarum Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer published in Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37, 1905. This species is tuberiferous and myrmecophilous, being regularly associated with Azteca sp ants. Orivel & Leroy (2011) list it as a true ant-garden epiphyte. Range: Amazonian South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru (Type collected in the Loreto Department, Mishuyacu (exact location unknown) but near Iquitos Town. Markea fosbergii Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 25, 1997. Range: Ecuador, (Zamora-Chinchipe Province.) Markea longiflora John Miers published in Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 2 4, 1849. Range: Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil, and Ecuador. Markea panamense Paul Carpenter Standley published in Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11(2), 1930. Synonym Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standley) Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 10, 1977. The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are probably used by ants for nests and storage. Range: Panama. Markea sessiliflora Walter Adolpho Ducke published in, Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, 1915. Range: French Guiana, Markea spruceana Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 25, 1997. Endemic to Ecuador (Bolivar & Pichincha Provinces.) Markea ulei (Dammer) José Cuatrecasas published in Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 61(1), 1958. Basionym Ectozoma ulei Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer published in Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37(2), 1905. Orivel & Leroy (2011) list Markea ulei as a true ant-garden epiphyte. Range: Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru.
  19. Lecanopteris and Myrmecophila????? Not so, that would create even more confusion. Myrmecophila Rolfe. Type Myrmecophila tibicinis (Bateman) Robert Allen Rolfe published in Orchid Review 25, 1917. Basionym Epidendrum tibicinis James Bateman published in Edwards's Botanical Register 24, 1838. (Rolfe cited Schomburgkia tibicinis as its basionym in error.) They are still frequently referred to as Schomburgkia in the orchid trade. Etymology of Myrmecophila is based on the word myrmecophile (ant friend) derived from the Greek words 'myrmekos' ant and 'phileo' love as a friend.) A myrmecophile is usually defined as an animal species that habitually shares the nest of an ant species; however, in this context it alludes to Myrmecophila being ant-friendly plants. The name Myrmecophila was later duplicated for a genus of myrmecophyte ferns (now Lecanopteris) by Konrad Hermann Heinrich Christ (ex Nakai) when published in Botanical Magazine 43, 1929, thus creating much taxonomic confusion. The genus was revised in 2003. The currently accepted species are: M. brysiana, (Lem.) G.C. Kennedy. M. christinae, Carnevali & Gómez-Juárez. M. galeottiana (A. Rich.) Rolfe. M. grandiflora Carnevali, Tapia-Muñoz & I. Ramírez. M. humboldtii (Rchb. f.) Rolfe. M. thompsoniana (Rchb. f.) Rolfe. Cayman Island only M. tibicinis(Bateman.) Rolfe. M. wendlandii (Rchb. f.) G.C. Kennedy. M x lagunae-guerrerae Carnevali, Ibarra. González & Tapia-Muñoz. A natural hybrid. Source. http://lankesteriana.org/lankesteriana/Lankesteriana%20vol.%203.%202003/Lankesteriana%20N%207/Numeroporsecciones/14%20Carnevali%20et%20al.pdf
  20. There is only one species of Squamellaria known to inhabit both Vanua Levu and Taveuni Island. That species is Squamellaria imberbis (A. Gray) Beccari published in Malesia Raccolta 2, 1886. Synonym S. wilsonii (Horne ex Baker) Beccari also in Malesia Raccolta 2, 1886. Basionym Hydnophytum wilsonii Horne ex Baker, published in Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 20, 1883. Asa Gray's collections were made in the eighteen fifties and Beccari's publication for both 'species' was in 1886 with Horne ex Baker published in 1883 both about 30 years later; therefore, it seems evident that the name S. imberbis should have precedent.
  21. http://www.plantsystematics.org/imgs/robbin/re/Polypodiaceae_Microgramma_bifrons_38501.html Here the fern expert Robbin Moran has labeled his own photo as Microgramma brunei http://tcf.bh.cornell.edu/imgs/robbin/r/Polypodiaceae_Microgramma_brunei_7585.html Of course not everyone may accept Lellinger's classification, therefore thorough web searches should cover both 'generic' names.
  22. Squamellaria thekii Jebb, published in Blumea 36, 1991. This is a little known species, only collected once. Again, the tuber is sub pendent, irregularly rotund and notable for having distinct encircling rings of entrance holes where the tuber is slightly constricted. Stems several, clustered, unbranched, reaching 36x08 cm. Habitat: A low-level epiphyte on forest tree trunks at 300-400 m. (984-1312 ft.) Record: Taveuni Island, on 'road' to Des Voeux Peak at 16o.50' S. 180o 00' E. The leaves of the plant in this photo are a little reminiscent of S. major being somewhat glossy but the shape is less rounded, less undulate and venation is far less apparent. Also the branches of S. major are much thicker and produced singly, while these branches are thinner and arise in scattered clusters but there is (possibly?) some branching. The apex of the tuber is rounded, another diagnostic for S. thekii, while the tuber apex of S. imberbis is usually very flattened. An anomaly is that in this telephoto image, some branches seem to be thickened towards their apex which is a diagnostic of S. major. However, I suspect the type description was made from limited material. I also wonder (purely idle speculation) if this species may be a natural hybrid between S. imberbis & S. major. Another extremely low possibility is that this specimen is something new taxonomically. With most specimens high in trees I was not aware that I had photographed this species until I was able to view my images on a large screen when I returned home.
  23. The much rarer Squamellaria thekii on lower elevations of the Des Voeux Peak track near the start of protected forest. Taveuni Island, Fiji. Fiji Photo's 123B, Squamellaria thekii..JPG] attachment=639:
  24. Squamellaria imberbis (A. Gray) Beccari published in Malesia Raccolta 2, 1886. Synonym S. wilsonii (Horne ex Baker) Beccari Malesia Raccolta 2, 1886. Basionym Hydnophytum wilsonii Horne ex Baker, published in Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 20, 1883. Tuber elongate-rotund growing horizontally to 30 cm long and approximately half that in diameter with a number of slim hydnophytum-like stems arising from the apex or nearby. Colour glossy to matt black with scattered 2 cm spines mounted on small protrusions; small, rimmed entrance holes are most numerous on upper surfaces. Stems several, branching, to 50 cm long. Calyx pale green, corolla white. Flowers and fruits have been obtained between May and December. Habitats: Two reports. Often several specimens to a tree growing at altitudes of 300-700 m. (984-2297 ft.) on Vanua Levu and Taveuni Islands, Fiji. Occurring in dense forest at elevations of 200-900 m. (656-2953 ft.) Range: Endemic to Fiji: Vanua Levu and Taveuni Islands. Records: Vanua Levu Island: Thakaundrove (Cakaudrove) Province: Mt. Kasi, Yanawai River region (16o 30’ S. 179o 19’ E. this is on the mid west side of Savusavu Bay on the south side. Mathuata-Thakaundrove (Cakaudrove) Provincial boundary; Korotini Range near road from Savusavu to Lambasa. Crest of Korotini Range, between Navitho Pass and Mt. Ndelaikoro. Taveuni Island: Western slope 16o 48' S, 179o 58' E, between Wairiki on the north-west coast and Somosomo a little further north. Slopes of Mt. Manuka, east of Wairiki and on wooded mountains on western slope a few kilometres northeast of Vuna Point. On road to Des Voeux Peak. Above Qacavulo (Nggathavula) Estate, Nggarawalu Freehold (now obsolete.) Also Forest Creek ?an uncertain location.)
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