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Urticaceae. Poikilospermum sp. Luzon Philippines.

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I have vastly improved this post and have added more to the

2020 edition of my e/book- data base.


Poikilospermum cordifolium. (Barg.-Petr.) Merr. (Elmer Drew Merrill) An enumeration of plants collected in Sumatra by W. N. and C. M. Bangham, Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 8. p49 (1934) (Contr. Arnold Arbor. 8: p49 1934.)


Basionym Conocephalus cordifolius Barg.-Petr. (Bargagli-Petrucci). In Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano; e Bollettino della Societa Botanica Italiano. Florence, ser. ix. p220, t. 7, (1902). (Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 9: 220 (1902)) Not found online.

Listed by P.O.W.O but not Tropicos.


Among 42 names listed. http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=Poikilospermum

Not listed http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Habit, Ecology, Infauna.Summary. 1. The huge diversity of symbiotic associations among animals and/or plants comprises both mutualisms and parasitisms. Most symbioses between social insect species, however, involve social parasites, while mutual benefits have been only suspected for some parabiotic associations – two colonies that share a nest.

2. In the rainforest of Borneo, we studied parabiotic (essentially it means sharing nests) associations between the ants Crematogaster modiglianii and Camponotus rufifemur. Parabiotic nests were regularly found inside hollow tree trunks, most likely initiated by Cr. modiglianii. This species frequently nested without its partner, whereas we never found non‐parabiotic Ca. rufifemur nests. We experimentally investigated potential benefits, potential interference competition for food (as a probable cost), and foraging niches of both species.

3. The two species never showed aggressive interactions and amicably shared food resources. However, Cr. modiglianii had a wider temporal and spatial foraging range than Ca. rufifemur, always found baits before Ca. rufifemur and recruited more efficiently. Camponotus rufifemur probably benefited from following pheromone trails of Cr. modiglianii. In turn, Ca. rufifemur was significantly more successful in defending the nest against alien ants. Crematogaster modiglianii hence may profit from its partner’s defensive abilities.

4. In neotropical parabioses, epiphytes grown in ‘ant‐gardens’ play a crucial role in the association, e.g. by stabilization of nests. Hemiepiphytic Poikilospermum cordifolium (Cecropiaceae) (sic, it is now considered Urticaceae) seedlings and saplings frequently grew in the entrances of parabiotic nests in Borneo, obviously dispersed by the ants. In cafeteria (feeding) experiments, both parabiotic ants carried its elaiosome‐bearing seeds into the nest. However, P. cordifolium does not provide additional nest space, contrasting with neotropical (sic, and many palaeotropical ones also) ant‐gardens.”

5. The parabiotic association appears beneficial for both ant species, the main benefits being nest initiation by Cr. modiglianii and interspecific trail‐following (for Ca. rufifemur), and, in turn, nest defence by Ca. rufifemur (for Cr. modiglianii). However, Ca. rufifemur seems to be more dependent on its partner than vice versa. Menzel, F. & Blüthgen N. In, Parabiotic associations between tropical ants: equal partnership or parasitic exploitation? Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol.79 iss1, (2009) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01628.x

Orivel & Leroy 2011. List as true ant garden epiphytes. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae


Range. Peninsula Thailand to W. Malesia.



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I have vastly amended my notes on Poikilospermum cordifolium above, and added more to my 2020 edition of my e/book - data base. Indeed, my chapter on "Other Ant-plant Families especially is already much enlarged as I drill down into leads provided by Aurelien, Jay  and Satoshi. 

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