Jump to content
Forum for Epiphytic Myrmecophytes
Aurélien

New Greenhouse in Nancy BG : Interactions animal/plants

Recommended Posts

Hi all,

As announced previously, I come back here after a long absence. Actually, I had a continuous increase of work the previous years. And now, I would be pleased to show you one of the work I did during this time.

The idea of a greenhouse dedicated to animals and plants' interaction is an old dream, and long-term endeavour. But we finally open this house in fall 2018, and I'm quite happy of the result 🙂
Of course, it's not finished (and it'll never been finished 😉 ), and I continue to improve it as I can (and the next weeks could be an interesting period for it).

Animal/plants interactions exists since both group of organisms were appeared in Earth, are everywhere and led to remarkable co-evolution. Among many occurring interactions, we choose to present these through tropical ecosystem with these examples:

- Carnivorous plants, and moreover Nepenthes. Nepenthes show really interesting co-evolutions with another organism (bats, Tupaia, rats, termites, ants, bacteria, frogs, insects larvae, ...), with one myrmecophilous species! Whole carnivorous plants will be presented in another greenhouse (I work actually to another new greenhouse, that we aim to open this fall, completely dedicated to carnivorous plants and their habitats)

- Ant-plants. Of course, one of my favourite topic for this house 😉

- Pollination. It seems to be evident, but we would like to present it through "nice" examples: pollination by bats, lizards, birds, mice...

- Phytothelmata. Another interesting interaction. For diverse reasons, some plants could accumulate water (or produce liquids). And diverse forms of life could grow in it. Bromeliads, Commelinids, Nepenthes, Bamboo among other.

- Zoochory. Dispersion of plants by animal is an interesting subject. It could be external (exozoochory), internal (endozoochory), with double situation : diploendozoochory (when a carnivore eat a frugivore), and is trully important for long distance dispersal. We know the case of seeds, but it's also important for living plants, i.e. turions of aquatic plants by birds, or Tillandsia usneoides used for bird's nests.

- Herbivory. The most common interaction (even if it's not really for the benefice of plants!). And we choose to show it with "defence" mechanism: sensitive plants, the egg mimicry of Passiflora sect. Decaloba and the pseudo-eaten leaves of some Ficus species, ie. F. politoria from Madagascar.

As we show only plants, and animals are absent from the house, we had put some really showy pictures to illustrate our speech.

And next: pictures!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The entrance of the house with transparent plastic strips, with tropical forest layout printed. And a pergola with Nepenthes, so people enter in a tunnel made by Nepenthes lianas and hanging pitchers 😉

737748422_Serreplantesanimaux20200406030.thumb.JPG.0197b261d9f2c9fd90699e93f08db609.JPG

Nepenthes species in a living Sphagnum bed. Mixed with Amorphophallus species, interesting for pollination features 😉

19771847_Serreplantesanimaux20200406032.thumb.JPG.63000a2673505368db3b462234405743.JPG

Another Nepenthes, and the pictures of well known interactions.788743143_Serreplantesanimaux20200406033.thumb.JPG.9f5faae33d0c23188138103936d9cdcf.JPG

A false tree with epiphytic Nepenthes.

724506385_Serreplantesanimaux20200406031.thumb.JPG.a41ec284b34da5a458f488c0f1655854.JPG

N. bicalcarata, a nice transition from carnivorous plants to ant-plants.940930470_Serreplantesanimaux20200406051.thumb.JPG.20667d6a20a6db889798ef3e3bbe08c2.JPG

Cecropia membranacea, a nice ant-tree. Here with epiphytic Cactaceae Strophocactus witii.

1096811964_Serreplantesanimaux20200406050.thumb.JPG.73c6f1871d8d16050af21215a9f920a8.JPG

This one is a true myrmecophilous, with trichilia and müllerian bodies.

1620508204_Serreplantesanimaux20200406085.thumb.JPG.6d852565633b3d820be86d7fc7b71884.JPG

 

1569665950_Serreplantesanimaux20200406086.thumb.JPG.04451f55dc20cb64485afa74d66f1478.JPG

In an other hand, C. schreberiana subsp. antillarum is not an obligate ant-species.

483858922_Serreplantesanimaux20200406049.thumb.JPG.0b1d5ea5b362d4859e0814ff5ceac69d.JPG

Albeit from a lineage really near Cecropia, the Brazilian Coussapoa dealbata (previously known as Cecropia dealbata) shows no adaptation to myrmecophily. It's used here cause I love this tree (and I cheat a little bit 😉 ), and also a a support for false neotropic ant-gardens, with Aechmea longifolia, A. mertensii, Monolena primuliflora, Anthurium obtusum, Philodendron linnaei, Columnea linearis.

2040938817_Serreplantesanimaux20200406045.thumb.JPG.b7f53cdd6ccd4163b9e398894b74988c.JPG

1148666858_Serreplantesanimaux20200406044.thumb.JPG.b6698b67dd10d12b4c0d36645038a42c.JPG

666964959_Serreplantesanimaux20200406082.thumb.JPG.daee848c97dfb50e07de28f4dfff1cc7.JPG

At his feet, a clump of Maieta guianensis, a pretty Melastomataceae rarely seen in cultivation.1826938707_Serreplantesanimaux20200406081.thumb.JPG.6a977f067a441fca7894c52c1e5c48f4.JPG

Another Melastomataceae from Guyanas : Tococca guianensis. I love particularly this plant and it's actually the most beautiful specimen I'd ever grown ❤️

2087644409_Serreplantesanimaux20200406048.thumb.JPG.733d71388a28e201c86952513b340e01.JPG

1524273762_Serreplantesanimaux20200406080.thumb.JPG.68497e22fea100a1d8d633fb54eba8ca.JPG

Cordia alliodora, a neotropical tree with hollow gales. I put an epiphytic ant-garden asiatic Zingiberaceae on his trunk: Hedychium longicornutum.

1396077716_Serreplantesanimaux20200406047.thumb.JPG.546b903ee6ee7a0092964e59adf8148d.JPG

We continue with ant tree. Clerodendrum speciosissimum with its extrafloral nectaries.

265344461_Serreplantesanimaux20200406054.thumb.JPG.7b07b30f578a1028cde15daf5a67e49d.JPG

Acacia cornigera with its nice hollow spines and beltian bodies in its folioles.

1931447385_Serreplantesanimaux20200406055.thumb.JPG.c038caed9371684bc5171a2d8f693217.JPG

Also here: A. sphaerocephala, A. caven, Kigelia africana, Blakea subconnata, B. pulverulenta, Piper auritum.

Now, bromeliads! WIth a beautiful specimen of Brocchinia acuminata.

1686965851_Serreplantesanimaux20200406056.thumb.JPG.96d1acab120d0e16af65f1247a8b37a7.JPG

Another false tree made with cork, this branch is totally dedicated to ant associated Tillandsia : T. paucifolia, T. utriculata, T. intermedia, T. bulbosa, T. xerographica, T. juncea, T. seleriana, T. pseudobaileyi, T. pseudosetacea...

203992800_Serreplantesanimaux20200406046.thumb.JPG.41b5c763fef703a46e1324db9fa935f2.JPG

Next: epiphytic ant-plants!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I'm particularly fond of these artificial trees made with hollow cork an a mix of pine bark and living Sphagnum.

Here, I use it to show the high diversity of neotropical ant-gardens. Cactaceae: Epiphyllum crenatum, E. hookeri, E. phyllanthus, Deamia testudo. Piperaceae: Peperomia macrostachya, P. emarginella. Solanaceae: Juanulloa mexicana, Markea coccinea, M. longiflora, M. sessiliflora. Araceae: Philodendron ornatum, P. melinonii, P. deflexum, Anthurium gracile, A. scandens. Ferns: Microgramma lycopodioides, M. megalophylla. Bromeliads: Aechmea bracteata, A. longifolia, A. recurvata, Araecoccus flagellifolius. Gesneriaceae: Codonanthe macradenia, Columnea linearis, C. crassifolia. Orchids: Myrmecophila spp., Psychilis atropurpurea, Encyclia cordigera...

175191136_Serreplantesanimaux20200406052.thumb.JPG.48763de08fba3ed576e6fc46bf395b13.JPG

141085110_Serreplantesanimaux20200406053.thumb.JPG.b2a2bfcb2149170726d7ac270fcbaac4.JPG

1809776493_Serreplantesanimaux20200406083.thumb.JPG.a2901ad7e6f093546049d3c3dbc5e248.JPG

And of cause, I've put two branches dedicated to Hydnophytinae!

1566717821_Serreplantesanimaux20200406057.thumb.JPG.1a7cb0e976fd181230eaa29e4d559353.JPG

1864617355_Serreplantesanimaux20200406058.thumb.JPG.0618cdd625a49601d693f1b8b783784f.JPG

52262295_Serreplantesanimaux20200406059.thumb.JPG.84d2dc2cddf510e93c2f7ada042864e0.JPG

They look healthy here, in a sunny place, with high air movement. They grow fastest than in pot in the private greenhouses...

A small panorama.

Myrmecodia tuberosa from peninsular Malaysia, probably M. tuberosa 'armata'.

1673591322_Serreplantesanimaux20200406060.thumb.JPG.62aa7a5df556d516e43787f234ab73b0.JPG

The northern form of M. beccarii.

875064652_Serreplantesanimaux20200406061.thumb.JPG.5bbe6d57955886c45b63716c92da3073.JPG

A typical Hydnophytum formicarum.

1728807861_Serreplantesanimaux20200406062.thumb.JPG.2dce1706dcd033a90baa78fb7addb5bd.JPG

A lovely Myrmecodia from Papua. I've identified it as M. albertisii subsp. albertisii.849725503_Serreplantesanimaux20200406064.thumb.JPG.d8d83f21114b9b6fc118eea47941858a.JPG

1965174777_Serreplantesanimaux20200406063.thumb.JPG.cefa09d3ab87065fe4c2e81c170f2996.JPG

A big and strong specimen of non ant-associated Hydnophytum : H. radicans (previously H. simplex). We don't see really in the picture, but the caudex is about 15-20 cm in diameter and whole plant reach 70cm! That's incredible as it's a 3-4 years seedling. It grow so fast here...

195828164_Serreplantesanimaux20200406065.thumb.JPG.4a3008d8070836f1471c91fcb2b371e8.JPG

Another nice Myrmecodia from Papua. To me, it's M. kutubuensis.

446703476_Serreplantesanimaux20200406066.thumb.JPG.e775cc1b92cd5de78c0932ae020d067d.JPG

449295703_Serreplantesanimaux20200406067.thumb.JPG.ca54870139823b8fa410fe0215afbd93.JPG

Hydnophytum moseleyanum from Papua. A classical!

1721357370_Serreplantesanimaux20200406068.thumb.JPG.fa2b733d2a7067d44ad8194522e8ab4e.JPG

These Myrmecodia received as M. echinata, I called them M. platytyrea... Perhaps I'm wrong. One BG gave it to Nancy in 1989 as from Philippines, but I'm quite dubious of it! There's so much risks of swaping of plants or labels in greenhouses... So in 30 years!

863571528_Serreplantesanimaux20200406069.thumb.JPG.bbdc2d94168e908734729608a9b0867c.JPG

917274994_Serreplantesanimaux20200406070.thumb.JPG.28047f6e81fd55164c1b7b2bcf506b45.JPG

Next one came from Solomons' Island. I've recalled it Myrmecodia tuberosa 'salomonensis' (or M. salomonensis). It's so pretty with its orange petioles!

1048889566_Serreplantesanimaux20200406071.thumb.JPG.5f7321c815d7cb2a7a84427973e44623.JPG

258419072_Serreplantesanimaux20200406072.thumb.JPG.612bc4792e1d098140cf1bfef95be7df.JPG

538093881_Serreplantesanimaux20200406073.thumb.JPG.d706bfbcf90335ad6bad8e5e0f32732a.JPG

Myrmephytum beccarii, another classic.

130528485_Serreplantesanimaux20200406074.thumb.JPG.144dfd32b41159d5db7695e73f8f0354.JPG

Another specimens of M. tuberosa 'armata' from peninsular Malaysia. I've put them upside down, I love this hanging habit!

523206264_Serreplantesanimaux20200406075.thumb.JPG.d9b24341f92dbebb91e45bbb99e131bb.JPG

982678646_Serreplantesanimaux20200406076.thumb.JPG.2f3dd40a9f0f7ee5d80ecf7d92b0e346.JPG

125617269_Serreplantesanimaux20200406077.thumb.JPG.cdd09ac236fb8011cd86af37374ba42f.JPG

And to finish: a pretty nice Hydnophytum from Jayapura that I grow without name since a loooong time. I just recalled it H. lauterbachii sine 2019 revision of the genus. Problem: H. lauterbachii is supposed to come from S. Papua, and Jayapura is in the North...

1867410342_Serreplantesanimaux20200406078.thumb.JPG.625038bf5fc01fdc6febb5603381b843.JPG

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The biggest work of the house: a dripping wall made with volcanic rock. 3 months of work for 3 peoples! But I'm happy about the result 😉

The first idea was to present myrmecophily on the left, and zoogamy on the right. So, most of the paleotropic ant-plants and asiatic ant-garden plants are here: Asplenium, Platycerium, Lecanopteris, Microsorum, Pyrrosia, Aglaomorpha, Dischidia, Hoya, Medinilla, Pachycentria, Grammatophyllum... But it's too wet for them, and it's not representative to have them in a wall. If I could, I'll build another branch in cork for them. Later...

303328184_Serreplantesanimaux20200406041.thumb.JPG.a02ba714c3e71973fdfec47a5d94c7bb.JPG

In the right face, I've put many flowering plants. Gesneriaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Begonia... About 300 species of various groups! The idea is to have a nice wall with high diversity, but also to have all the time some flowering plants. And particularly with interesting features for pollination (birds, lizards...)

142773905_Serreplantesanimaux20200406042.thumb.JPG.b7ea402707907b2cb22690703be84023.JPG

2057415491_Serreplantesanimaux20200406043.thumb.JPG.1e729e363daa0df621b80e4a7c04ef4f.JPG

1405656110_Serreplantesanimaux20200406079.thumb.JPG.108c1f607941c0a18d94d3db162bee06.JPG

Some orchids are also in a cork branch here:

108483529_Serreplantesanimaux20200406038.thumb.JPG.7c87e5b23614b5e55149f94cd3b5ab0b.JPG

981363771_Serreplantesanimaux20200406037.thumb.JPG.5a39026227876162eec1f8501f816a24.JPG

And the Phytotelmata place! With A huge Alcantarea, Cochliostemma odoratissima, Nepenthes ampullaria, and diverse tank bromeliads.

235192231_Serreplantesanimaux20200406039.thumb.JPG.f85ded0c58e7d44be4edec957fec0804.JPG

And the pedagogical pannels! I've write the texts and ask many people to get nice pictures of animals living in phytotelmata in situ.

254520628_Serreplantesanimaux20200406040.thumb.JPG.665744693680a8ac230a17c4182ed0e7.JPG

The place for zoogamy. The text and pictures refers to plants everywhere in the house. It take me so much time to find these picture, but wahou! These are so nice and so demonstrative!

In this picture, you could also see on the left a branch with Vanilla (for zoogamy), and a bird nest build in our greenhouses by a local Turdus with our Tillandsia usneoides (for zoochory)! In the middle, Desmodium incanum, a nice Fabaceae with hooked fruits (very sticky!) that I'd mischievously put right in the middle of the path 😛. On the right, several sensitive plants (for "defence" against herbivory). The well known Mimosa pudica, but also M. diplotricha, M. sensitiva, M. polycarpa, M. pigra, M. uncinnata, Biophytum sensitivum and B. sokupii. The hanging liana is Passiflora colinvauxii, also for defence.

1976512051_Serreplantesanimaux20200406034.thumb.JPG.c9ad3081357f06271e93c9e2cd71bafb.JPG

Zoochoty board:

149832999_Serreplantesanimaux20200406036.thumb.JPG.b8bdc46a4d4baf2d3bca63ddca176dd3.JPG

And "defence" against herbivory board.

1500681124_Serreplantesanimaux20200406035.thumb.JPG.b4393de3accf69a27dbd28616830006a.JPG

That's all folks!

I hope you enjoy this virtual visit during these strange times of lockdown 😉

Take care and stay well,
All the best,
Aurélien

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thank you Aurélien. Lots of names here to keep me busy while I cope with Covid 19 Lockdown here in NZ.  Often when checking new possible epiphytic myrmecophyte names for my Ebook/database, I find even more examples. Quite a few new names that will appear in my 2020 edition (if the virus does not get me - I will soon to be 80) have also been added to my Facebook group because there is currently much interest from South American university students/graduates. One of my Facebook members is translating the book into Spanish, our planets fourth most spoken language. 

Here is one that you can update if you accept their research.

Codonanthopsis. Mansf. (Rupert Mansfield) Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 36, p120. (1934) (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.) Actually vol.37 but behind Wiley paywall. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/fedr.19340370103

Revision. Chautems & Mat. Perret, Redefinition of the Neotropical Genera Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. and Codonanthopsis Mansf. (Gesneriaceae). Selbyana Vol.31 No.2 pp143-156, (2013)

Codonanthopsis has been enlarged from two to 13 species distributed in Central America, the Caribbean, north-western South-America, and the Amazonian basin. This expanded circumscription of Codonanthopsis requires the transfer of ten taxa traditionally recognized as Codonanthe and one originally described in Paradrymonia. This publication includes 11 new combinations and 9 lectotypifications.”

https://gesneriads.info/library/redefinition-of-the-neotropical-genera-codonanthe/

Habit/Ecology/Infauna. Epiphytic always growing in ant gardens. Seed resembles the eggs and larvae of ants which find them attractive (pheromones?) to the degree that they collect and plant them in the walls of their arboreal carton nests to create ant gardens. Range. Central America, the Caribbean, north-western South-America, and the Amazonian basin.

Codonanthopsis macradenia (Don. Sm). Chautems & Mat. Perret (Alain P. Chautems & Mathieu Perret) comb nov. Redefinition of the Neotropical Genera Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. and Codonanthopsis Mansf. (Gesneriaceae). Selbyana Vol.31 No.2 p153 (2013.) 

https://gesneriads.info/library/redefinition-of-the-neotropical-genera-codonanthe/

Basionym Codonanthe macradenia Don Sm. (John Donell Smith) Botanical Gazette 25 (3), pp154/5, (1898) (Bot. Gaz.)

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/94870#page/224/mode/1up

Type, Costa Rica, Boruca, (1892), Tonduz 6769 (lectotype US00126533! designated by Moore (1973) isolectotypes at BM, BR, P, U.

Ecology/Infauna, An obligate ant-garden inhabitant. (Orivel & Leroy. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. (2011)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae

Evidence for Partitioning of Belezean Ant Nest Substrate by a Characteristic Flora, Paul M. Catling, Biotropica, Vol. 27, 4, pp 535-537, (1995.)

http://www.jstor.org/stable/2388970

Range, Mexico - Oaxaca, Central America, (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.) South America (Colombia - Choco, La Guajira, Santander).) Propagation, easy from cuttings or seed.

Ant Gardens.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae

Edited by Derrick
Improvement.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Hi Jeff and Derrick, and thanks for your nice comments.

Thanks also Derrick for these nice infos. Yes, I accept their research, and I'll change the name! I wasn't aware of this paper and changes. gesneriads.info is my reference for Gesneriaceae, and this change is also accepted by POWO, one of my principal resources for taxonomy.

All the best, especially during these pandemic times...

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Loading...

×
×
  • Create New...