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Derrick

Solanaceae myrmecophytes

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I post these in the hope that interest can be created in the Americas to induce more inputs..

 

Solanaceae (Potato Family.) Tribe Juanulloeae.

The tribe Juanulloeae consisted of nine genera of rarely collected, epiphytic shrubs and small trees: Juanulloa, Markea, Schultesianthus, Trianaea, Dyssochroma, Hawkesiophyton, Rahowardiana, Ectozoma, and Merinthopodium.  A cladistic study of the relationships of these species has reduced the number of genera to six, Dyssochroma, Juanulloa, Markea, Merinthopodium, Schultesianthus, and Trianaea. Also included is the genus Solandra, which was treated as a separate tribe, Solandreae. (Knapp et al. 1997.)

Juanulloa and Markea (now including the former Ectozoma and Hawkesiophyton) are probably the only genera of interest herein.  They are Mexican to tropical South American members of the potato family but I can find little information about what seems to be a poorly studied group of plants; however, a number of species are recorded as ant-garden inhabitants and some have hollow stems regularly occupied by ants thus are ant-house species.  (McBride, J. Flora of Peru 1849.) (Benzing 1990.) (Knapp 1997.)

Markea, Louis Claude Marie Richard published in Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, 1792.  Type Markea coccinea Richard.

These are sparsely branched epiphytes that often grow in ant gardens,  Some species have short to greatly elongate swollen stems that are hollow between internodes where they often shelter ant colonies, consequently these are ant-house species.

Markea camponoti Walter Adolpho Ducke published in Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, 1915.  A species regularly associated with Camponotus femoratus ants.  Range: Brazil.

Markea formicarum Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer published in Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37, 1905.

This species is tuberiferous and myrmecophilous, being regularly associated with Azteca sp ants.  Orivel & Leroy (2011) list it as a true ant-garden epiphyte.

Range: Amazonian South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru (Type collected in the Loreto Department, Mishuyacu (exact location unknown) but near Iquitos Town.

Markea fosbergii Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 25, 1997.  Range: Ecuador, (Zamora-Chinchipe Province.)

Markea longiflora John Miers published in Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 2 4, 1849. Range: Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil, and Ecuador.

Markea panamense Paul Carpenter Standley published in Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11(2), 1930.  Synonym Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standley) Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 10, 1977.  The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are probably used by ants for nests and storage.  Range: Panama.

Markea sessiliflora Walter Adolpho Ducke published in, Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, 1915.  Range: French Guiana,

Markea spruceana Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 25, 1997. Endemic to Ecuador (Bolivar & Pichincha Provinces.)

Markea ulei (Dammer) José Cuatrecasas published in Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 61(1), 1958.  Basionym Ectozoma ulei Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer published in Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37(2), 1905.  Orivel & Leroy (2011) list Markea ulei as a true ant-garden epiphyte.  Range: Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru.

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Thanks a lot for these informations!

 

We grow Markea coccinea in our artificial ant garden, and we have also a Juanulloa sp. from Mexico, but I don't know this genus as a myrmecophyt... Really precious information!

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One hopes there may be more information in Spanish or Portugese publications but although the Facebook Ant-plant group has a number of multilingual members, I doubt very much if any of them did any searching of their 'local' sources. Certainly nothing was ever posted.

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Continuing the subject in my last post. With 790 members in my Facebook group I had asked for assistance translating any pertinent epiphytic/ant-plant notes in the document below from French to English. But as is usual, the response has been zero.  I am able to translate much of it but there is always not knowing what one does not know. Thus, it would be helpful if someone with Francais as their first language could list any appropriate sentences in French along with a translation in English along with the species name the comments allude to.

Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne.

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up

I have researched the taxonomy and found type species and correct modern names etc.  

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I have translate all the passages in french to english  sheet 54-55-56-57  but we have also latin language on it 😉

jeff

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Philpatrick and Jeff having helped with some French translations have influenced this posting here rather than in a 2020 edition of Epiphytic Myrmecophytes. 

Markea, Rich. (Louis Claude Marie Richard) Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, p107 (1792).

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/163187#page/141/mode/1up

Type Markea coccinea Rich.

With Illustration, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/21792#page/264/mode/1up

Andrés Orejuela et al. http://biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.167.2.1/8259

Sandra Knapp http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/640413#page/151/mode/1up

Habit/Ecology/Infauna. Epiphytic or hemi-epiphytic sparsely branched vines or shrubs, often growing in arboreal ant gardens. Myrmecodomic species have short to long swollen stems with hollow domatia between internodes.

Habitat. Most species grow in primary forests from sea level to 3000 m (9843 ft.). The highest diversity is found in the Colombian Andes (13 of 20 species currently recognized) and Ecuadorian Andes. Range from Panama to Bolivia and Southern Brazil (Knapp et al. 1997.) (Hunziker 1997 & 2001.) Probably those species that most interest us are from Amazonian lowland habitats.

Markea coccinea Rich. (Louis Claude Marie Richard) Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, p107 (1792). https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/163187#page/141/mode/1up

Synonym. Lamarkea coccinea (Rich) Pers.

Collections. (1913) van Neil F, 263, Surinam; Sectie O.

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526384

(1961) Schulz J. P. 9043, Surinam; J' savanne-Mapane area. (Suriname River.).

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526385

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526386

(1967) Borsboom, N.W.J. 12041, Surinam; B.S.H. ekspl. Patamacca.

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526382

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526383

Ecology/Infauna. Ducke p55, (1915) Arbuste epiphyte presque grimpant rencontré très souvent sur les nids de la fourmi Camponotus femoratus (F.), par-fois sur ceux d'une Azteca. Peixeeboi (entre Belém et Bragança) Furo Macujubim (canaux de Breves) Rio Tapajoz en aval du 1st rapide. Était jusqu'iei seulement connu de la Guyane. Almost climbing epiphytic shrub often found on the nests of the Ant Camponotus femoratus (F.), sometimes on those of an Azteca. Peixeeboi (between Belem to Braganca) Furo Macujubim (Breves canals) Rio Tapajoz, downstream of the first rapid. Was so far only known in Guyana. Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up

Markea formicarum Dammer. (Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37, p170, (1905.) Types. Marary, Rio Jurua, Amazonas, Brazil (1900) Ule 5214. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up

Ule 5214, http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585084  

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L%20%200003610

Other collections. Ule 5693; (1902) São Joaquim on the Rio Negro, N. Brazil.

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up

Synonym M. ciliata.

?3462. https://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/search?view=grid&q=Markea+formicarum

(1985) South America; Venezuela; S.W. side of Cerro de la Neblina, Rio Negro. On Rio Baria (= Rio Mawarinuma) just upstream from base camp.

Utrecht H. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/U.1745433

Epiphyte in ant nests. Granville, J-J de; Cremers, G A. #13143, French Guiana, (1995.)

https://bioportal.naturalis.nl/specimen/U.1745517

Clarke, H. D; Williams R; Perry C. #7587 (1998) Epiphyte in ant nests. South America, Guyana, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo, Acarai Mts. (near camp at base) 4k. S of Sipu River.

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/U.1745515

Spruce #2317 (1852) San Gabriel da Cachoeira, ad Rio Negro, N. Brazil. Endorsed M. formicarum Dammer. Synonym. Type of M. ciliata Spruce. http://www.tropicos.org/image/4153

M. ciliata Spruce, #2317 (Richard Spruce) (1908.) Herbarium placement with no publication details. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/29600899

M. ciliata Spruce #2317 possible Type, Brazil, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Rio Negro, (1852.)

http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/specimen-details/?irn=559491

M. ciliata Spruce #2317, (1852). As possible type. Brazil, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Rio Negro, Northern Brazil.

http://data.rbge.org.uk/herb/E00413953

Ecology/Infauna. Tuberiferous and myrmecophilous being regularly associated with Azteca ant species. The presence of ant domatia was reported by Spruce (1908)

Ducke (1915) As Marckea (sic) formicarum. Epiphyte sur les nidd d' Azteca ; semble limitée à la moitié occidentale de l'Amazonie. Connue du Juruá et Juruá-miry et de S. Joaquim, Rio Negro. Epiphyte on the nests of Azteca, seems limited to the western half of the Amazon. Known from Jurua and Jurua -miry and from S. Joachim, Rio Negro. Ducke (1915), Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne.

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up

Weber NA (1943) Parabiosis in neotropical "ant gardens". Ecology 24(3): pp400-404. Whom was quite incorrect in believing that ants did not plant the seeds of ant garden plants. They surely do.

https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2307/1930541

Orivel & Leroy (2011) list it as a true ant-garden epiphyte. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae

Range. Amazonian South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Guyane, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru (Type collected in Loreto Department, Mishuyacu (exact location unknown) but near Iquitos Town.

Markea fosbergii Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) Kurtziana [Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, (Kurtziana 25, pp85/6 f.2), (1997).  

Holotype. Fosberg, F. R. & Giller M. #23179 (1945) Loja. Headwaters of N. fork of Río San Francisco, on crest E of Cordillera de Zamora (El Condor), 11k E of Loja, at 2825m (9268 ft.) Zamora-Chinchipe Province, Ecuador.

https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.us01049838

Ecology/Infauna. Not confirmed as myrmecophytic. Range Ecuador.

Markea longiflora Miers (John Miers) Annals and Magazine of Natural History, second series 4, p186, (1849). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/102947#page/210/mode/1up

Synonym Markea camponoti Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, pp55/56, (1915) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/62/mode/1up

Collections. (1862) Southern America; Surinam.

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2874270

(1911) Southern America; French Guiana.

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2874271

(1971) Brazil; Territoirio do Roraima, Indian trail from Surucucu, vicinity of Uaica airstrip, Rio Uraricoeira. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526391

(2006) French Guiana; Kaw Mts., near Patawa, logging road. Small logging trail, left side from Mt. de Kaw road, 10 minutes beyond Patawa.

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.4150390

(2006) Kaw Mts. Roadside, near eastern border of Tresor Reserve.

https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.4150398

Ecology/Infauna. As M. camponoti Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, pp55/56, (1915) A note in Latin. Frutex in nidis formicae = Bush in the nests of ants. And Translation from French. “Almost climbing epiphytic shrub very often encountered on the nests of the Ant Camponotus femoratus (F.), sometimes on those of an Azteca.

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up

Range, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil, and Ecuador.

Markea panamense Paul Carpenter Standley published in Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11(2), (1930.) Synonym Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standley) Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 10, (1977.) The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are probably used by ants for nests and storage. Range: Panama.

Markea sessiliflora Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, p56, (1915). Type Ducke, MG15488 s.n.; no date; Brazil (MG)

https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.f0bn002962

Type. Ducke, RB 18138 s.n.; no date; Brazil (B)

https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.s05-9574

Synonym Markea porphyrobaphes Sandwith

Other collections. (1929) Sandwith 279. Climber, overhanging creek. Flower creamy-yellow, purple within at base of tube. Guyana; Essequibo River; Moraballi Creek, near Bartica.

http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585082

(1929) Sandwith 518, Climber with rootlets, in swamp near right bank. Corona greenish-cream, purplish at base within. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585083

Illustration Planche 19, https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/103/mode/1up

Ecology/Infauna. Ducke (1915)Almost always in the woods in humid habitat. epiphytic.” Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Vol.1 p56. (1915.)

AND. "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins frequente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de três rares exceptions, on ne Tobserve que sur les nids de Camponotus femoratis." This species is much less frequent than the M. camponoti; with rare exceptions it is observed on the nests of Camponotus femoratus. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up

Dejean et al. (2018) Camponotus femoratus and C. irritabilis have a reputation as some of the world's most aggressive ant species, easily able to pierce human skin. They then inject formic acid into these wounds such that massed attacks are most uncomfortable.

https://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Camponotus_femoratus

Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior live together in arboreal ant gardens. This territorially-dominant association inhabited 20% of tree canopies sampled in Amazonian forest. Ant–plant relationships in the canopy of an Amazonian rainforest: the presence of an ant mosaic, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 125, issue 2, pp344–354, (2018.) Range, French Guiana.

https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly125

Markea spruceana A. T. Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) Kurtziana [Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias. (Kurtziana 25, (1997)). Not online.

Collections (1860) Spruce s.n. Ecuador “Pulled down as we were riding through the forest. These are the only leaves that caterpillars had not quite eaten up - they seem to be 6 from the apex of a ramulus - or are they leaflets? In devexo montis Chimborazo supra tablas, (On slopes of Chimborazo (volcano) on tablas (?) at 2438m (8000ft.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimborazo

Kew H. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000201977

Habitat from 2200-2650m (7218-8694ft.) in montane wet (cloud) forest at Parroquia: (near the Nono - Mindo Road) in El Pahuma Orchid Reserve, 17k E of Nanegalito. Trail from "La Guarida del Oso" to "Sendero de Los Yumbos", Quito, Pichincha Province, Ecuador, South America.

Habitat notes http://www.ceiba.org/elpabirdreport.htm

Range, Endemic to Ecuador (Bolivar & Pichincha Provinces.)

Markea ulei (Dammer) Cuatrec. (José Cuatrecasas) Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 61(1), pp78/9. (1958) (Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.). Subscription required http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/fedr.v61:1/issuetoc

Basionym Ectozoma ulei Dammer (Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37(2), pp170/1, (1906 not 1905) (Bot. Jahrb. Syst.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up

Other Synonyms. Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standl.) Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) using the basionym Markea panamense Standl. (Paul Carpenter Standley) Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11 (2), pp127/8 (1930). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/33588#page/133/mode/1up

Ectozoma pavonii Miers (John Miers.) Markea dimorpha C.V. Morton (Conrad Vernon Morton.)

Habit/Ecology/Infauna. The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are very probably used by ants for nests and storage. Orivel & Leroy also list Markea ulei as a true ant-garden epiphyte. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. (2011)

Spruce (1908) and Davidson & Epstein (1989) also report ant-domatia.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae

Epiphyte sur les nids d'Azteca, le plus souvent dans la forêt périodiquement inondée; habite les parties centrales et occidentales de l'Amazonie. Dêcrit du haut Juruá et Juruá-miry, et des environs de Tarapoto; recemment encore collectionnè par E. Ule au Rio Acre et aux environs de Manoáos.

Epiphyte on Azteca nests, most often in periodically flooded forest; lives in the central and western parts of the Amazon’ the upper Jurua and Jurua-miry and the surroundings of Tarapoto; recently still collected by E. Ule at Rio Acre and around Manaus.

Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Vol.1 p55. (1915.)

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up

Range. Panama (Barro Colorado Island), Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru.

Page 57 lists other un-named epiphytic species on arboreal ant nests.

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up

SOLANACÉES EPIPHYTES SUR LES NIDS DE FOURMIS.

= Epiphytic Solanaceae on the nests of ants.

A: species 1: small green flowers on a nest of species of the genus Azteca. Central and western Amazonia.

B: large flowers, long tube corolla.

a): species 2: inflorescence lax (broad), pauciflorous (few flowers or inflorescences), pendulous, with often very long peduncle (to 40cm), slender, simple or two or even three times branched; pedicel 1-2 1/2 cm. Calyx green, corolla scarlet, flat limb, stamens of tube length. Often on the nests of Camponotus femoratus, sometimes on those of Azteca. "Hylaea" whole.

b): flowers in the short and thick twigs (Aborted or metamorphosed twig that simulates a stem). Corolla of fundamental greenish or whitish color; stamens slightly longer than half the tube.

species 3: petioles and basilar parts of the rib of the leaves, spongy, very thick. Sessile flowers, solitary at the end of short branches, often geminated (gathered in pairs). Uniformly green calyx; whitish green or yellowish corolla or even ivory white, almost actinomorphic (which exhibits radial symmetry). Almost always on the nests of Camponotus femoratus. Belem do Para and region between Belem and Braganca. Petioles and rib of leaves, herbaceous. Flower fairly long pedicelled. Corolla bilabiate, whitish green or yellowish, marbled purple brownish.

species 4: inflorescence, racemo-cymose (flowers arranged in a cyme- with the main axis ending in a flower) with up to ten flowers. Whitish calyx, traversed by purple veins. On nests of Camponotus femoratus. Eastern half of the Amazon.

species 5: geminous (gathered in pairs) or solitary flower. Uniformly green calyx. On the nests of species of the genus Azteca. Central and western Amazonia.

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up

Edited by Derrick
Primarily due to inability to keep original format after pasting.when

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After reading the pages again, I found some of the spelling was different. 

 "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins frequente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de três rares exceptions, on ne Tobserve que sur les nids de Camponotusfemoratis." 

Suggested spelling:

"Cette espèce est beaucoup moins fréquente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de très rares exceptions, on ne l'observe que sur les nids de Camponotus femoratus."

 

Suggested changes:

frequente › fréquente (added accent mark "é")

três › très ( changed accent mark from ê to è).

Tobserve › l'observe

Camponotusfemoratus › 

Camponotus femoratus

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