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Derrick

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  1. Ecological Research. Angelina Rowell, James Cook University, Cairns. Studied the relationships between Myrmecodia beccarii and Philidris ants in North Queensland mangroves. She reported (pers. comm.) that resident ants actually castrate their home plants by cutting up its flowers and transporting resultant pieces to their nests within tubers. Angelina found more buds and flowers were produced on ant-colonised, thus well-fed plants, so more fruit should develop on them. Yet, there were more fruits on uncolonised specimens, even though their bud and flower numbers were nutritionally constrained through a lack of ant feeding. Therefore, ants must be removing flowers before pollination, resulting inevitably in lower fruit/seed numbers. Furthermore, Angelina found that ants only removed flowers from their host plant, not from nearby uncolonised plants. Angelina’s Anova statistical analysis, showed that there was no significant difference between the fruit number on colonised versus uncolonised plants (i. e. fruit production is equal). Therefore, ants are not increasing home plant reproductive output. To belabor a point, trophic benefits that the plants are getting from their ants is not transferred to greater seed production because of flower castration. There are greater numbers of leaves on colonised plants, which in theory translates to a greater growth rate in the plant tuber and bigger domatia. But this project did not have enough time allocated to measure increase in plant growth. In summary, more buds, flowers and leaves on colonised plants does not result in more fruit and seed production. Angelina also noted on another thread. "We are looking at the spined form that occurs in the Cairns area. It seems that the majority of the flowers that are left on the plants by the ants develop into fruit. Not 100% sure if it is self pollinating - yet .....The ant interactions with this species is very interesting." I have tried to find more information on line but have not been successful. Attn Dr Guillaume Chomicki. This surely is important to the field of mutualisms.? It is very probable that resident ants are deliberately improving the growth rates of home tubers. Photos Angelina Rowell.
  2. It is sad that too many members of ant-plant circles seem focused primarily on the acquisition of plants with little regard for an acquisition of knowledge. Certainly, unless I duplicate information here, that I have already disseminated on my Facebook group. It DOES NOT get shared. For example, I have posted an update to my section (it took weeks of long day's work) on "Other Ant-plant Families" which now lists probably all known Neotropical ant-plant Melastomataceae (including terrestrials) plus additions to other Neotropical ant-friendly families. I have vastly extended this section due to an influx of South American members (mostly academics) into my Facebook group because my tome is being translated into Spanish. There is an automatic Dropbox link on my group to this rather large section. https://www.facebook.com/groups/498723016920977/ I regularly promote this group but I am not aware of any reciprocation. And let us be honest, it is mostly moribund. Another fascinating fact is the VERY NOVEL presence of extrafloral nectaries in Myrmecodia horrida. See. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90306-4_10-1
  3. Aurelien. May I use a few of these photos in my tome.
  4. Thanks for this. I have removed it from my tome.
  5. Neotropical Myrmecophilous Melastomataceae. Most of these names are historic because all members of the tribe Miconieae are now placed in a sole genus Miconia. In my 2020 edition I hope to list all changes under Miconia along with as many synonyms as possible. Most species are shrubs or even small trees but some are hemi-epiphytic and occasionally truly epiphytic, even occurring in ant gardens. However, because they have so much interest to students of myrmecophytes I am listing all ant friendly species in my tome which is mostly reserved for epiphytic species. Allomaieta grandiflora, Blakea austin-smithii, Blakea chlorantha, Blakea formicaria, Blakea involvens, Blakea jativae, Blakea perforata, Blakea podagrica. Blakea podagrica subsp. ciliata, Blakea polyantha, Blakea punctulata, Blakea subconnata, Blakea subvaginata, Clidemia acostae, Clidemia allardii, Clidemia allardii subsp. maranonensis, Clidemia allardii, Clidemia ayangannensis, Clidemia ciliata, Clidemia ciliata var. testiculata, Clidemia cymosa, Clidemia collina, Clidemia crenulata, Clidemia ferox, Clidemia foliosa, Clidemia folsomii, Clidemia heptamera, Clidemia heterophylla , Clidemia inobsepta, Clidemia juruensis, Clidemia killipii, Clidemia lanuginosa, Clidemia myrmecina, Clidemia neblinae, Clidemia pilosa , Clidemia pubescens, Clidemia rodriguezii, Clidemia setosa, Clidemia trichogona, Clidemia spectabilis, Clidemia sprucei, Clidemia taurina, Clidemia tenebrosa , Clidemia tococoidea, Clidemia ventricosa, Conostegia dentata, Conostegia hispida, Conostegia inusitata, Conostegia setosa, Henriettella cuneata, Maieta guianensis, Maieta neblinensis, Maieta poeppigii, Merianthera burlemarxii, Miconia bailloniana, Miconia expansa, Miconia flaccida, Miconia hospitalis, Ossaea bullifera, Tococa aristata, Tococa bullifera , Tococa bullifera var. glabrata, Tococa capitata, Tococa caquetana, Tococa caudata, Tococa ciliata, Tococa cordata, Tococa coronata, Tococa filiformis, Tococa gonoptera, Tococa guianensis, Tococa hirta, Tococa lancifolia, Tococa lancifolia var. anaphysca, Tococa leticiana, Tococa macrophysca, Tococa macroptera, Tococa macedoi, Tococa macrosperma, Tococa obovata subsp. obovata, Tococa parviflora, Tococa parviflora var. mansenrichensis, Tococa tetramera, Tococa pauciflora, Tococa quadrialata, Tococa racemifera, Tococa rotundifolia, Tococa spadiciflora, Tococa stellata, Tococa stenoptera, Tococa stephanotricha, Tococa symphyandra, Tococa undabunda, Topobea gracilis, Topobea inflata, Topobea pluvialis.
  6. Aurelien. Having you back in the group has focused more of my attention here. One result is that I have found more information about this family (only Neotropical spp.) after searching for more information regarding Blakea spp., and ants. There is an enormous volume of information in this study, but it will require many long hours sorting out the epiphytic (and hemiepiphytc) myrmecophytes that I specialize in, because of course many are terrestrial species. Neotropical myrmecophilous Melastomataceae – an annotated list and key. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230028715_Neotropical_myrmecophilous_Melastomataceae_-_an_annotated_list_and_key
  7. As a popular song once said. Two out of three ain't bad. Note A. myrmecophilus is a synonym. GESNERIACEAE Rich. & Juss. (Louis Claude Marie Richard & Antoine Laurent de Jussieu) Essai sur les Propriétés Médicales des Plantes, ed. 2, p192, (1816) (Essai Propr. Méd. Pl., ed. 2) https://archive.org/stream/essaisurlespropr00cand/essaisurlespropr00cand_djvu.txt Aeschynanthus Jack. (William Jack) In Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14: p42. (1823.) (Trans. Linn. Soc. London) Stored in BHL as Vol 14. (1825.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/13693#page/47/mode/1up Habit. A large variable genus of mostly epiphytic species. Some with ant affiliations. Habitat/ Range. About 160 species from India and Sri Lanka through Southeast Asia to southern China and southwest to New Guinea and finally the Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. (Weber, 2004; Middleton, 2007). D.J. Middleton, In A revision of Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae) in Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 68(1): pp1–63. (2016.) doi: 10.3850/S2382581216000016. https://www.nparks.gov.sg/sbg/research/publications/gardens-bulletin-singapore/-/media/sbg/gardens-bulletin/gbs_68_01_y2016_v68_01/4-4-68-1-1-y2016-v68p1-gbs-pg1.pdf Aeschynanthus albidus (Blume) Steud. (Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel) In Nomenclature Botanique ed. 2, 1: p32. (1840). (Nome ncl. Bot.) Not found online. Basionym Bignonia albida Blume (Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Blume) In Catalogus. p81. (1823). (Catalogus) See page bottom. A link can be found via Tropicos using Bignonia albida. Ecology/Infauna. Recorded growing on 9 epiphytic ant garden nests supporting 3 colonies of Camponotus irritabilis. Andreas Weissflog, Eva Kaufmann & Ulrich Maschwitz, Ant gardens of Camponotus (Myrmotarsus) irritabilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) and Hoya elliptica (Apocynaceae) in Southeast Asia, Asian Myrmecology. Volume 9, (2017) http://www.asian-myrmecology.org/publications/am09/weissflog-et-al-2017-am009001.pdf Aeschynanthus dischidioides (Ridl.) D. J. Middleton, Edinburgh J. Bot. 64: p425 (2007). Basionym Micraeschynanthus dischidioides Ridl., Fl. Malay Penin. 5: p325 (1925). TYPE: Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Gunung Tahan, 1670 m, Ridley, H. N. 16122 (lectotype K, designated by Middleton (2007); isolectotype SING [SING0089714]). (Fig. 5, 6) Synonyms. A. myrmecophilus P. Woods, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: p483 (1975); Turner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 47(1): p243 (1997 [‘1995’]). Type: Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Cameron Highlands, Robinson’s Falls, 1500 m, 16 April 1968, Woods, P. J. B. 616 (holotype E [E00062778]). A. hildebrandii auct. non Hemsl. ex Hook.f.: Ridley, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 32: p502 (1896); Ridley, J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 44: p15 (1905); Ridley, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74(2): p734 (1909); Ridley, Fl. Mal. Pen. 2: p499 (1923). Description in detail with images of attractive bird pollinated flowers. P15-19. https://www.nparks.gov.sg/sbg/research/publications/gardens-bulletin-singapore/-/media/sbg/gardens-bulletin/gbs_68_01_y2016_v68_01/4-4-68-1-1-y2016-v68p1-gbs-pg1.pdf Ecology/Infauna. Epiphyte with pendent stems often reported in ant gardens along with Lecanopteris or Dischidia. Habitat. Lower montane forest at 1100-2000m (3609-6562ft.) Range. Currently only recorded on the Malay peninsula but may extend further to Thailand and Sumatra Island. Aeschynanthus fecundus Woods. (Patrick James Blythe Woods) In Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 33: p482. (1975). (Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh.) Not digitised. Ecology. A retrieval test using 20 seed of this plant species found that Camponotus irritabilis ignored them all. This infers that it is an improbable member of ant gardens but that is surely not conclusive evidence. Seed of Dischidia nummularia in this study (p3) were also totally ignored, yet they are common members of varied ant-plant guilds. However, dischidias parachute seed does not depend upon ants for distribution. http://www.asian-myrmecology.org/publications/am09/weissflog-et-al-2017-am009001.pdf
  8. I have vastly amended my notes on Poikilospermum cordifolium above, and added more to my 2020 edition of my e/book - data base. Indeed, my chapter on "Other Ant-plant Families especially is already much enlarged as I drill down into leads provided by Aurelien, Jay and Satoshi.
  9. Anthurium obtusum (Engl.) Grayum, (Michael Howard Grayum,) in Phytologia 82(1): p35. (1997) (Phytologia). Basionym Anthurium trinerve var. obtusum Engl. (Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(3): pp357-358, (1898) (Bot. Jahrb. Syst.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/209214#page/367/mode/1up Synonym. Anthurium trinerve Miq. (Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel) In Linnaea 17: pp66–67, (1843) (Linnaea). https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/106859#page/72/mode/1up Etymology. Obtusum. essentially means blunt. Habit/Ecology. A confirmed ant garden resident using a synonym Anthurium trinerve Miq. In Aragua Cedeño, et al. Ant Gardens of Surumoni, Venezuela Selbyana Vol. 20, No. 1, pp125-132, (1999.) https://www.jstor.org/stable/41760015?seq=1 Photos. http://www.aroidpictures.fr/GENERA/ANTHURIUMM-Z/anthobtusum.html Range tropical Central and South America. My E/book - data base 2020 will have more details of ant associated Araceae. Most will be very clearly illustrated.
  10. Columnea crassifolia Brongn. ex Lem. (Adolphe Théodore (de) Brongniart) ex (Antoine) Charles Lemaire.) L'Horticulteur Universel 6: pp203-205, t. 7. (1844). (Hort. Universel) Not yet digitised. http://legacy.tropicos.org/name/14000978 An attractively flowering upright small shrub. Image. https://plantingman.com/columnea-crassifolia-flowering-plants/ Ecology. Mentioned as an ant garden resident on this Nancy Botanical Gardens, France, web page. https://tools.bgci.org/garden.php?id=191 I have not been able to find supporting evidence on the www, but it is a probable contender. Range. Guatemala. Honduras, Mexico.
  11. Another for Aurelien. Psychilis. Raf. (Constantine Samuel Rafinesque), In Flora Telluriana 4: p40. (1838). (Fl. Tellur.) Note there are five number series in Flora Telluriana vol.. 4, this p40 is in series 5. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7430200#page/386/mode/1up Species. http://www.theplantlist.org/browse/A/Orchidaceae/Psychilis/ Psychilis atropurpurea (Willd) Sauleda, (Rubén Primitivo Sauleda) In Phytologia 65: p6. (1988). (Phytologia) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12985222#page/8/mode/1up Basionym. Epidendrum atropurpureum Willd. (Carl Ludwig von Willdenow) In Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4: p115. (1805). (Sp. Pl.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/670785#page/114/mode/1up Synonyms. Encyclia atropurpurea (Willd.) Schltr.(1914), Epidendrum atropurpureum Willd. (1806), Epidendrum atropurpureum var. laciniatum Ames, F.T.Hubb. & C.Schweinf. (1935), Limodorum purpureum Lour. ex Steud. (1841.) Description. A small to medium sized epiphyte with pyriform (pear-shaped) deeply ribbed pseudobulbs with 2-4, coriaceous (leathery) stiff, erect, linear to narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, truncate, smooth margined involute leaves. Inflorescence to 60" (1.524m) terminal, erect, stiff, partially enveloped by tubular scarious sheaths, successively producing many attractive flowers with scarious, ovate, acuminate floral bracts. Ecology/Infauna. Its extensive root mass provides nesting opportunities for arboreal ants. Habitat. In cactus thorn scrub, semi-arid pine woods and broadleaf forests from sea level to 1100m. (3609ft.) Range. The Dominican Republic and Haiti, Hispaniola Island, Greater Antilles Archipelago, Caribbean. Cultivation. Requires warmth. Flowering spring, to autumn. http://www.orchidspecies.com/psyatropurpurea.htm Habitat photo. Beautiful flowers.
  12. Another especially for Aurelien. Araeococcus Brongn. (Adolphe Théodore (de) Brongniart.) In Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 2, 15: p370. (1841). (Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2,) Type A. micranthus. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36284721#page/374/mode/1up P O W O. http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:4884-1 Species. http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:4884-1#children The genus name is from the Greek “araios” (thin, weak, slight) and the Latin “coccus” (berry). This genus is divided into two subgenera: the type subgenus and Pseudaraeococcus Mez. Range, northern South America, Central America and Trinidad Araeococcus flagellifolius Harms (Hermann August Theodor Harms.) In Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 10: p784. (1929). (Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem) Not digitised. Type. HT: Huebner 58; July 1929; Brazil: Amazonas: Rio Apuahu, Rio Negro drainage, B (photo, F. http://legacy.tropicos.org/name/4300058 Habit/ Ecology. An attractive, unique epiphytic species with long whip-like bronze-hued leaves about 60cm. (2ft.) long from a slender ovoid pseudobulb. Its low-growing slender flower stems are pale red, and bear many small pink flowers that become blue-black berries. Its possession of pseudobulbs infers it may be myrmecodomic (ant-housing). Habitat/Range. Near rivers at elevations around 213m, (700ft.) in the upper Amazon region. Etymology. Araeococcus is from the Greek araeo, meaning few, and kokkos seed, the genus having the smallest fruit and the fewest seeds in the family. Flagellifolius refers to its whip-like leaves. https://journal.bsi.org/V21/5/ Cultivation, it thrives out doors in southern California. Photos. https://floredeguyane.piwigo.com/index?/category/172-epiphytes
  13. I am sure that there is much more to learn about ants and bromeliads but this is all I have found regarding this one. Although it may not even be myrmecophytic it certainly grows among such tillandsias. Tillandsia pseudosetacea Ehlers & Rauh. (Renate Ehlers & Werner Rauh) In Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt 58: pp35–37, f.21. (1986). (Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt). Not yet digitised. Ecology. It occurs with T. occulta, H. Luther, (1997) Type found on a logging road NE of Panuco, Sinaloa, Mexico at 1100m. (3609ft.) along a small stream, epiphytic on Bombaceae in pine/oak forest with Tillandsia caput-medusae (a myrmecodomic species), and T. makoyana (a member of the T. utriculata group thus possibly (probably?) myrmecodomic. http://www.bromeliad.org.au/pictures/Tillandsia/occulta.htm “At the place where we collected, I would guess there were thousands of T. chapalillaensis, hundreds of T. pseudosetacea, tens of T. makoyana and T. achyrostachys and few T. ionantha.” http://www.bromeliad.org.au/pictures/Tillandsia/chapalillaensis.htm Thus, it may only be an ant-plant guild resident. Range, Mexico (Sinaloa, Guerrero, Oaxaca). http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:286194-2
  14. Thank you Aurélien. Lots of names here to keep me busy while I cope with Covid 19 Lockdown here in NZ. Often when checking new possible epiphytic myrmecophyte names for my Ebook/database, I find even more examples. Quite a few new names that will appear in my 2020 edition (if the virus does not get me - I will soon to be 80) have also been added to my Facebook group because there is currently much interest from South American university students/graduates. One of my Facebook members is translating the book into Spanish, our planets fourth most spoken language. Here is one that you can update if you accept their research. Codonanthopsis. Mansf. (Rupert Mansfield) Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 36, p120. (1934) (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.) Actually vol.37 but behind Wiley paywall. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/fedr.19340370103 Revision. Chautems & Mat. Perret, Redefinition of the Neotropical Genera Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. and Codonanthopsis Mansf. (Gesneriaceae). Selbyana Vol.31 No.2 pp143-156, (2013) Codonanthopsis has been enlarged from two to 13 species distributed in Central America, the Caribbean, north-western South-America, and the Amazonian basin. This expanded circumscription of Codonanthopsis requires the transfer of ten taxa traditionally recognized as Codonanthe and one originally described in Paradrymonia. This publication includes 11 new combinations and 9 lectotypifications.” https://gesneriads.info/library/redefinition-of-the-neotropical-genera-codonanthe/ Habit/Ecology/Infauna. Epiphytic always growing in ant gardens. Seed resembles the eggs and larvae of ants which find them attractive (pheromones?) to the degree that they collect and plant them in the walls of their arboreal carton nests to create ant gardens. Range. Central America, the Caribbean, north-western South-America, and the Amazonian basin. Codonanthopsis macradenia (Don. Sm). Chautems & Mat. Perret (Alain P. Chautems & Mathieu Perret) comb nov. Redefinition of the Neotropical Genera Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. and Codonanthopsis Mansf. (Gesneriaceae). Selbyana Vol.31 No.2 p153 (2013.) https://gesneriads.info/library/redefinition-of-the-neotropical-genera-codonanthe/ Basionym Codonanthe macradenia Don Sm. (John Donell Smith) Botanical Gazette 25 (3), pp154/5, (1898) (Bot. Gaz.) http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/94870#page/224/mode/1up Type, Costa Rica, Boruca, (1892), Tonduz 6769 (lectotype US00126533! designated by Moore (1973) isolectotypes at BM, BR, P, U. Ecology/Infauna, An obligate ant-garden inhabitant. (Orivel & Leroy. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. (2011) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae Evidence for Partitioning of Belezean Ant Nest Substrate by a Characteristic Flora, Paul M. Catling, Biotropica, Vol. 27, 4, pp 535-537, (1995.) http://www.jstor.org/stable/2388970 Range, Mexico - Oaxaca, Central America, (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.) South America (Colombia - Choco, La Guajira, Santander).) Propagation, easy from cuttings or seed. Ant Gardens. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae
  15. Of course, what I should have done was to search for Antrophyum lanceolatum in the fern section of by E/book, which I would have found listed as a synonym under Polytaenium feei. Thus, saving me a few hours of work. Yes, I certainly cannot remember every name let alone the many details I have added to this large database.
  16. How to be led up the garden path. The name Antrophyum lanceolatum seemed familiar to me so I checked the index of my book but it was not listed there. I was therfore led to think that here was a new addition to the world of Epiphytic Myrmecophytes. However, I had already found and written about it under its correct name. Polytaenium feei (W. Schaffn. ex Fée) Maxon (William Ralph Maxon) in Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 6, p405. (1926.) (Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands) Basionym Antrophyum feei W. Schaffn. ex Fée (Johann Wilhelm (Guillermo) Schaffner ex Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fée. Synonyms. Polytaenium lanceolatum (L.) Benedict (Ralph Curtiss Benedict) in Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 38, p169. (1911) (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club.) Also, Antrophyum lanceolatum (L.) Kaulf. With the basionym of Hemionitis lanceolata L. (Carl von Linnaeus) a nomen illegitimum in Species Plantarum 2, p1077. (1753) (Sp. Pl.) Thus, all names based on this basionym are nomenclaturally illegal. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/359098#page/519/mode/1up Ecology. Although not strictly myrmecodomic, a study in Puerto Rica confirmed that this species benefited from the intimate presence of Pheidole flavens ants. Use of stable isotopes recorded increased nitrogen intake via roots from ant wastes. Watkins et al. (2008) as Antrophyum lanceolatum. Ants mediate nitrogen relations of an epiphytic fern. New Phytol. 180, pp5-8. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02606.x
  17. Pteridaceae. E.D.M. Kirchn. (E.D.M. Kirchner.) in Schul-Botanik, oder, Kurze Naturgeschichte der Pflanzen überhaupt p109. (1831). (Schul-Bot.) Not yet digitised. Antrophyum Kaulf. (Georg Friedrich Kaulfuss) in Enumeratio Filicum 197, p282. (1824). (Enum. Filic.), not yet digitised. Antrophyum lanceolatum (L.) Kaulf. In Enumeratio Filicum p198. (1824). (Enum. Filic.) Basionym. Hemionitis lanceolata L. (Carl von Linnaeus) in Species Plantarum 2: p1077. (1753). (Sp. Pl.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/359098#page/519/mode/1up Habit This Neotropical epiphytic fern species creates fibrous root masses that are used by ants especially the species Pheidole flavens for nesting. Ecology/Inbiota. “(W)e found that 62% of the sampled individuals of the epiphytic fern A. lanceolatum (Fig. 1a) harbored the ant species P. flavens in their rhizome mats (Fig. 1b,c). In larger fern individuals, these rhizome nests can contain over 100 individual ants and become filled with ant wastes.” “N contribution was considerable.” “Results from the two-end-member mixing model suggest that, on average, ant debris contributed 54.1% (45.6–62.6%) of the N budget of the plant.”. Ants mediate nitrogen relations of an epiphytic fern, pp forum 1-4, New Phytologist (2008) https://www.catherinecardelus.com/2008-watkins-et-al-new.pdf www.newphytologist.org Range. Widespread from Mexico, Caribbean, Central America and Northern South America. http://legacy.tropicos.org/Name/26607001?tab=distribution I thank Philpatrick for providing the heads up to this new addition to THE BOOK.
  18. Philpatrick and Jeff having helped with some French translations have influenced this posting here rather than in a 2020 edition of Epiphytic Myrmecophytes. Markea, Rich. (Louis Claude Marie Richard) Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, p107 (1792). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/163187#page/141/mode/1up Type Markea coccinea Rich. With Illustration, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/21792#page/264/mode/1up Andrés Orejuela et al. http://biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.167.2.1/8259 Sandra Knapp http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/640413#page/151/mode/1up Habit/Ecology/Infauna. Epiphytic or hemi-epiphytic sparsely branched vines or shrubs, often growing in arboreal ant gardens. Myrmecodomic species have short to long swollen stems with hollow domatia between internodes. Habitat. Most species grow in primary forests from sea level to 3000 m (9843 ft.). The highest diversity is found in the Colombian Andes (13 of 20 species currently recognized) and Ecuadorian Andes. Range from Panama to Bolivia and Southern Brazil (Knapp et al. 1997.) (Hunziker 1997 & 2001.) Probably those species that most interest us are from Amazonian lowland habitats. Markea coccinea Rich. (Louis Claude Marie Richard) Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, p107 (1792). https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/163187#page/141/mode/1up Synonym. Lamarkea coccinea (Rich) Pers. Collections. (1913) van Neil F, 263, Surinam; Sectie O. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526384 (1961) Schulz J. P. 9043, Surinam; J' savanne-Mapane area. (Suriname River.). https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526385 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526386 (1967) Borsboom, N.W.J. 12041, Surinam; B.S.H. ekspl. Patamacca. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526382 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526383 Ecology/Infauna. Ducke p55, (1915) Arbuste epiphyte presque grimpant rencontré très souvent sur les nids de la fourmi Camponotus femoratus (F.), par-fois sur ceux d'une Azteca. Peixeeboi (entre Belém et Bragança) Furo Macujubim (canaux de Breves) Rio Tapajoz en aval du 1st rapide. Était jusqu'iei seulement connu de la Guyane. Almost climbing epiphytic shrub often found on the nests of the Ant Camponotus femoratus (F.), sometimes on those of an Azteca. Peixeeboi (between Belem to Braganca) Furo Macujubim (Breves canals) Rio Tapajoz, downstream of the first rapid. Was so far only known in Guyana. Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Markea formicarum Dammer. (Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37, p170, (1905.) Types. Marary, Rio Jurua, Amazonas, Brazil (1900) Ule 5214. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Ule 5214, http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585084 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L%20%200003610 Other collections. Ule 5693; (1902) São Joaquim on the Rio Negro, N. Brazil. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Synonym M. ciliata. ?3462. https://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/search?view=grid&q=Markea+formicarum (1985) South America; Venezuela; S.W. side of Cerro de la Neblina, Rio Negro. On Rio Baria (= Rio Mawarinuma) just upstream from base camp. Utrecht H. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/U.1745433 Epiphyte in ant nests. Granville, J-J de; Cremers, G A. #13143, French Guiana, (1995.) https://bioportal.naturalis.nl/specimen/U.1745517 Clarke, H. D; Williams R; Perry C. #7587 (1998) Epiphyte in ant nests. South America, Guyana, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo, Acarai Mts. (near camp at base) 4k. S of Sipu River. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/U.1745515 Spruce #2317 (1852) San Gabriel da Cachoeira, ad Rio Negro, N. Brazil. Endorsed M. formicarum Dammer. Synonym. Type of M. ciliata Spruce. http://www.tropicos.org/image/4153 M. ciliata Spruce, #2317 (Richard Spruce) (1908.) Herbarium placement with no publication details. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/29600899 M. ciliata Spruce #2317 possible Type, Brazil, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Rio Negro, (1852.) http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/specimen-details/?irn=559491 M. ciliata Spruce #2317, (1852). As possible type. Brazil, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Rio Negro, Northern Brazil. http://data.rbge.org.uk/herb/E00413953 Ecology/Infauna. Tuberiferous and myrmecophilous being regularly associated with Azteca ant species. The presence of ant domatia was reported by Spruce (1908) Ducke (1915) As Marckea (sic) formicarum. Epiphyte sur les nidd d' Azteca ; semble limitée à la moitié occidentale de l'Amazonie. Connue du Juruá et Juruá-miry et de S. Joaquim, Rio Negro. Epiphyte on the nests of Azteca, seems limited to the western half of the Amazon. Known from Jurua and Jurua -miry and from S. Joachim, Rio Negro. Ducke (1915), Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Weber NA (1943) Parabiosis in neotropical "ant gardens". Ecology 24(3): pp400-404. Whom was quite incorrect in believing that ants did not plant the seeds of ant garden plants. They surely do. https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2307/1930541 Orivel & Leroy (2011) list it as a true ant-garden epiphyte. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae Range. Amazonian South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Guyane, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru (Type collected in Loreto Department, Mishuyacu (exact location unknown) but near Iquitos Town. Markea fosbergii Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) Kurtziana [Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, (Kurtziana 25, pp85/6 f.2), (1997). Holotype. Fosberg, F. R. & Giller M. #23179 (1945) Loja. Headwaters of N. fork of Río San Francisco, on crest E of Cordillera de Zamora (El Condor), 11k E of Loja, at 2825m (9268 ft.) Zamora-Chinchipe Province, Ecuador. https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.us01049838 Ecology/Infauna. Not confirmed as myrmecophytic. Range Ecuador. Markea longiflora Miers (John Miers) Annals and Magazine of Natural History, second series 4, p186, (1849). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/102947#page/210/mode/1up Synonym Markea camponoti Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, pp55/56, (1915) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/62/mode/1up Collections. (1862) Southern America; Surinam. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2874270 (1911) Southern America; French Guiana. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2874271 (1971) Brazil; Territoirio do Roraima, Indian trail from Surucucu, vicinity of Uaica airstrip, Rio Uraricoeira. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526391 (2006) French Guiana; Kaw Mts., near Patawa, logging road. Small logging trail, left side from Mt. de Kaw road, 10 minutes beyond Patawa. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.4150390 (2006) Kaw Mts. Roadside, near eastern border of Tresor Reserve. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.4150398 Ecology/Infauna. As M. camponoti Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, pp55/56, (1915) A note in Latin. Frutex in nidis formicae = Bush in the nests of ants. And Translation from French. “Almost climbing epiphytic shrub very often encountered on the nests of the Ant Camponotus femoratus (F.), sometimes on those of an Azteca. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Range, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil, and Ecuador. Markea panamense Paul Carpenter Standley published in Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11(2), (1930.) Synonym Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standley) Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 10, (1977.) The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are probably used by ants for nests and storage. Range: Panama. Markea sessiliflora Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, p56, (1915). Type Ducke, MG15488 s.n.; no date; Brazil (MG) https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.f0bn002962 Type. Ducke, RB 18138 s.n.; no date; Brazil (B) https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.s05-9574 Synonym Markea porphyrobaphes Sandwith Other collections. (1929) Sandwith 279. Climber, overhanging creek. Flower creamy-yellow, purple within at base of tube. Guyana; Essequibo River; Moraballi Creek, near Bartica. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585082 (1929) Sandwith 518, Climber with rootlets, in swamp near right bank. Corona greenish-cream, purplish at base within. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585083 Illustration Planche 19, https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/103/mode/1up Ecology/Infauna. Ducke (1915) “Almost always in the woods in humid habitat. epiphytic.” Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Vol.1 p56. (1915.) AND. "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins frequente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de três rares exceptions, on ne Tobserve que sur les nids de Camponotus femoratis." This species is much less frequent than the M. camponoti; with rare exceptions it is observed on the nests of Camponotus femoratus. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up Dejean et al. (2018) Camponotus femoratus and C. irritabilis have a reputation as some of the world's most aggressive ant species, easily able to pierce human skin. They then inject formic acid into these wounds such that massed attacks are most uncomfortable. https://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Camponotus_femoratus Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior live together in arboreal ant gardens. This territorially-dominant association inhabited 20% of tree canopies sampled in Amazonian forest. Ant–plant relationships in the canopy of an Amazonian rainforest: the presence of an ant mosaic, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 125, issue 2, pp344–354, (2018.) Range, French Guiana. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly125 Markea spruceana A. T. Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) Kurtziana [Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias. (Kurtziana 25, (1997)). Not online. Collections (1860) Spruce s.n. Ecuador “Pulled down as we were riding through the forest. These are the only leaves that caterpillars had not quite eaten up - they seem to be 6 from the apex of a ramulus - or are they leaflets? In devexo montis Chimborazo supra tablas, (On slopes of Chimborazo (volcano) on tablas (?) at 2438m (8000ft.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimborazo Kew H. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000201977 Habitat from 2200-2650m (7218-8694ft.) in montane wet (cloud) forest at Parroquia: (near the Nono - Mindo Road) in El Pahuma Orchid Reserve, 17k E of Nanegalito. Trail from "La Guarida del Oso" to "Sendero de Los Yumbos", Quito, Pichincha Province, Ecuador, South America. Habitat notes http://www.ceiba.org/elpabirdreport.htm Range, Endemic to Ecuador (Bolivar & Pichincha Provinces.) Markea ulei (Dammer) Cuatrec. (José Cuatrecasas) Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 61(1), pp78/9. (1958) (Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.). Subscription required http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/fedr.v61:1/issuetoc Basionym Ectozoma ulei Dammer (Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37(2), pp170/1, (1906 not 1905) (Bot. Jahrb. Syst.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Other Synonyms. Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standl.) Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) using the basionym Markea panamense Standl. (Paul Carpenter Standley) Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11 (2), pp127/8 (1930). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/33588#page/133/mode/1up Ectozoma pavonii Miers (John Miers.) Markea dimorpha C.V. Morton (Conrad Vernon Morton.) Habit/Ecology/Infauna. The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are very probably used by ants for nests and storage. Orivel & Leroy also list Markea ulei as a true ant-garden epiphyte. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. (2011) Spruce (1908) and Davidson & Epstein (1989) also report ant-domatia. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae Epiphyte sur les nids d'Azteca, le plus souvent dans la forêt périodiquement inondée; habite les parties centrales et occidentales de l'Amazonie. Dêcrit du haut Juruá et Juruá-miry, et des environs de Tarapoto; recemment encore collectionnè par E. Ule au Rio Acre et aux environs de Manoáos. Epiphyte on Azteca nests, most often in periodically flooded forest; lives in the central and western parts of the Amazon’ the upper Jurua and Jurua-miry and the surroundings of Tarapoto; recently still collected by E. Ule at Rio Acre and around Manaus. Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Vol.1 p55. (1915.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Range. Panama (Barro Colorado Island), Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Page 57 lists other un-named epiphytic species on arboreal ant nests. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up SOLANACÉES EPIPHYTES SUR LES NIDS DE FOURMIS. = Epiphytic Solanaceae on the nests of ants. A: species 1: small green flowers on a nest of species of the genus Azteca. Central and western Amazonia. B: large flowers, long tube corolla. a): species 2: inflorescence lax (broad), pauciflorous (few flowers or inflorescences), pendulous, with often very long peduncle (to 40cm), slender, simple or two or even three times branched; pedicel 1-2 1/2 cm. Calyx green, corolla scarlet, flat limb, stamens of tube length. Often on the nests of Camponotus femoratus, sometimes on those of Azteca. "Hylaea" whole. b): flowers in the short and thick twigs (Aborted or metamorphosed twig that simulates a stem). Corolla of fundamental greenish or whitish color; stamens slightly longer than half the tube. species 3: petioles and basilar parts of the rib of the leaves, spongy, very thick. Sessile flowers, solitary at the end of short branches, often geminated (gathered in pairs). Uniformly green calyx; whitish green or yellowish corolla or even ivory white, almost actinomorphic (which exhibits radial symmetry). Almost always on the nests of Camponotus femoratus. Belem do Para and region between Belem and Braganca. Petioles and rib of leaves, herbaceous. Flower fairly long pedicelled. Corolla bilabiate, whitish green or yellowish, marbled purple brownish. species 4: inflorescence, racemo-cymose (flowers arranged in a cyme- with the main axis ending in a flower) with up to ten flowers. Whitish calyx, traversed by purple veins. On nests of Camponotus femoratus. Eastern half of the Amazon. species 5: geminous (gathered in pairs) or solitary flower. Uniformly green calyx. On the nests of species of the genus Azteca. Central and western Amazonia. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up
  19. Continuing the subject in my last post. With 790 members in my Facebook group I had asked for assistance translating any pertinent epiphytic/ant-plant notes in the document below from French to English. But as is usual, the response has been zero. I am able to translate much of it but there is always not knowing what one does not know. Thus, it would be helpful if someone with Francais as their first language could list any appropriate sentences in French along with a translation in English along with the species name the comments allude to. Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up I have researched the taxonomy and found type species and correct modern names etc.
  20. Philpatrick recently provided me with an interesting link to myrmecophytic fig species, one of which is hypothesized to have evolved a way to provide arboreal ants with domatia building materials. A Facebook botanist/explorer friend has been providing photos of Philippine mistletoes with apparent ant relationships. His most recent photos suggest that material for domatias under construction on a Scurrula mistletoe are perhaps purposely provided by the mistletoe. Which of course suggests co-evolution. It surely suggests more study is required and one hopes my comments will encourage this. https://www.facebook.com/groups/philippineplants/ https://www.facebook.com/groups/498723016920977/ Leads recently provided by Jay have also provided much new information that will be covered in a 2020 edition of my e/book-database, especially in the "Other Plant Families" section.
  21. Jay, I am quoting your last paragraph re Philodendron in THE BOOK. Appropriately credited and linked to this site of course. Thanks to this thread and Philpatrick's lead regarding myrmecophytic figs, I have more to keep me busy on rainy days. My Facebook Myrmecophyte group is currently attracting a new member every day, and from many corners of our planet, which is surely connected to the release of my e/book. One hopes that among the young, there will be the leaders of the future.
  22. Yes, a truly fantastic article that I will need to study in detail. It provides new leads for additions to my 2020 edition and photos I would love to have access to. Would future book editions provide much better dissemination to the world's myrmecophyte fraternity of the invaluable information Jay and his contacts provide? Outside of the jargon filled world of academia there are very few information sources for the lay public. I certainly welcome others to assist or even take over my book project. I also welcome corrections or whatever, but feed back so far has been virtually zero. Indeed, have my efforts been a waste of my time? Yet from the constant rate of new members now joining my Facebook group from all over the world, it seems it is being spread widely. Incidentally, I promote all of the pertinent information platforms. Being partisan as some so evidently are, does NOT help the spread of knowledge. New World ant gardens were once better known than Old World examples, presumably because of easier access. Certainly it was thought (in Europe?) that ant gardens were only common in the New World tropics where most had long been studied (obviously rather poorly?). Dr Eve Kaufman (2003) in her ground breaking study found them to be abundant in the tropics of Southeast Asia." http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/volltexte/2003/273/pdf/KaufmannEva.pdf Feedback. Its correctly Dolichoderinae. The very large ant-garden sizes Jay quotes are certainly new to me and presumably to most if not all Old World field workers. Also, I am not aware if Australia has any ant gardens. I have never seen one or found a written record. We do have myrmecophyte guilds but that means little in this regard. Already my 2019 edition is being superseded. For example, explorer botanist Mark Gregory Rule has provided photos of another Philippine mistletoe species with an ant inhabited haustorium. Of course, these photos raise more questions than answers without ecological study, but interest is being raised among those with access to these plant's habitats. Jay. Are your contacts working in the field sufficiently interested to read my book/data base and provide pertinent comments and habitat photos?
  23. I am adding Disterigma utleyorum to a 2020 edition of THE BOOK. (Currently it is raining again here) As an ant garden resident it warrants inclusion. I welcome any news regarding other epiphytic species. My impression is that the others mentioned above are terrestrial????
  24. This work has at times been almost overwhelming. During our wet winters, it is not hard to stay indoors and write, but summer is at last here, so I will be outside a lot more working on my land or cycling our many bike trails etc. I will try to keep updating this data base but in mere months I will be eighty with all that such implies. Therefore, perhaps others will take over updating this resource in future. Certainly, a comprehensive chapter by Jay Vanini on cultivation would add immensely to its usefulness. It follows that I welcome reports of the errors that I am certain must be many in a work of this size. A major advantage of an E/database is that it can be continually improved. As I write there have only been 18 views of this thread. Facebook surely has many flaws but its outreach is immensely superior. A lot of photos came from Facebook contacts. A thought for the future is that appropriately experienced individuals could concentrate on specific chapters.
  25. A Van der Pijl 773 (BO) Nengo, Bone Regency, South Sulawesi collection is recorded by H&J p281 as “Pollen and flower characters are also uniform” (referring to all their Sulawesi M. tuberosa variants) “except in Van der Pijl's collection, which also differs in the massive (stiff) black spines, red under sides to the leaves and caducous (quickly lost) stipules. The final treatment of these specimens must await further material.” Perhaps some connection?
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