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  1. Philpatrick and Jeff having helped with some French translations have influenced this posting here rather than in a 2020 edition of Epiphytic Myrmecophytes. Markea, Rich. (Louis Claude Marie Richard) Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, p107 (1792). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/163187#page/141/mode/1up Type Markea coccinea Rich. With Illustration, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/21792#page/264/mode/1up Andrés Orejuela et al. http://biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.167.2.1/8259 Sandra Knapp http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/640413#page/151/mode/1up Habit/Ecology/Infauna. Epiphytic or hemi-epiphytic sparsely branched vines or shrubs, often growing in arboreal ant gardens. Myrmecodomic species have short to long swollen stems with hollow domatia between internodes. Habitat. Most species grow in primary forests from sea level to 3000 m (9843 ft.). The highest diversity is found in the Colombian Andes (13 of 20 species currently recognized) and Ecuadorian Andes. Range from Panama to Bolivia and Southern Brazil (Knapp et al. 1997.) (Hunziker 1997 & 2001.) Probably those species that most interest us are from Amazonian lowland habitats. Markea coccinea Rich. (Louis Claude Marie Richard) Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, p107 (1792). https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/163187#page/141/mode/1up Synonym. Lamarkea coccinea (Rich) Pers. Collections. (1913) van Neil F, 263, Surinam; Sectie O. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526384 (1961) Schulz J. P. 9043, Surinam; J' savanne-Mapane area. (Suriname River.). https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526385 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526386 (1967) Borsboom, N.W.J. 12041, Surinam; B.S.H. ekspl. Patamacca. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526382 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526383 Ecology/Infauna. Ducke p55, (1915) Arbuste epiphyte presque grimpant rencontré très souvent sur les nids de la fourmi Camponotus femoratus (F.), par-fois sur ceux d'une Azteca. Peixeeboi (entre Belém et Bragança) Furo Macujubim (canaux de Breves) Rio Tapajoz en aval du 1st rapide. Était jusqu'iei seulement connu de la Guyane. Almost climbing epiphytic shrub often found on the nests of the Ant Camponotus femoratus (F.), sometimes on those of an Azteca. Peixeeboi (between Belem to Braganca) Furo Macujubim (Breves canals) Rio Tapajoz, downstream of the first rapid. Was so far only known in Guyana. Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Markea formicarum Dammer. (Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37, p170, (1905.) Types. Marary, Rio Jurua, Amazonas, Brazil (1900) Ule 5214. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Ule 5214, http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585084 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L%20%200003610 Other collections. Ule 5693; (1902) São Joaquim on the Rio Negro, N. Brazil. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Synonym M. ciliata. ?3462. https://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/search?view=grid&q=Markea+formicarum (1985) South America; Venezuela; S.W. side of Cerro de la Neblina, Rio Negro. On Rio Baria (= Rio Mawarinuma) just upstream from base camp. Utrecht H. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/U.1745433 Epiphyte in ant nests. Granville, J-J de; Cremers, G A. #13143, French Guiana, (1995.) https://bioportal.naturalis.nl/specimen/U.1745517 Clarke, H. D; Williams R; Perry C. #7587 (1998) Epiphyte in ant nests. South America, Guyana, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo, Acarai Mts. (near camp at base) 4k. S of Sipu River. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/U.1745515 Spruce #2317 (1852) San Gabriel da Cachoeira, ad Rio Negro, N. Brazil. Endorsed M. formicarum Dammer. Synonym. Type of M. ciliata Spruce. http://www.tropicos.org/image/4153 M. ciliata Spruce, #2317 (Richard Spruce) (1908.) Herbarium placement with no publication details. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/29600899 M. ciliata Spruce #2317 possible Type, Brazil, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Rio Negro, (1852.) http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/specimen-details/?irn=559491 M. ciliata Spruce #2317, (1852). As possible type. Brazil, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Rio Negro, Northern Brazil. http://data.rbge.org.uk/herb/E00413953 Ecology/Infauna. Tuberiferous and myrmecophilous being regularly associated with Azteca ant species. The presence of ant domatia was reported by Spruce (1908) Ducke (1915) As Marckea (sic) formicarum. Epiphyte sur les nidd d' Azteca ; semble limitée à la moitié occidentale de l'Amazonie. Connue du Juruá et Juruá-miry et de S. Joaquim, Rio Negro. Epiphyte on the nests of Azteca, seems limited to the western half of the Amazon. Known from Jurua and Jurua -miry and from S. Joachim, Rio Negro. Ducke (1915), Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Weber NA (1943) Parabiosis in neotropical "ant gardens". Ecology 24(3): pp400-404. Whom was quite incorrect in believing that ants did not plant the seeds of ant garden plants. They surely do. https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2307/1930541 Orivel & Leroy (2011) list it as a true ant-garden epiphyte. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae Range. Amazonian South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Guyane, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru (Type collected in Loreto Department, Mishuyacu (exact location unknown) but near Iquitos Town. Markea fosbergii Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) Kurtziana [Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, (Kurtziana 25, pp85/6 f.2), (1997). Holotype. Fosberg, F. R. & Giller M. #23179 (1945) Loja. Headwaters of N. fork of Río San Francisco, on crest E of Cordillera de Zamora (El Condor), 11k E of Loja, at 2825m (9268 ft.) Zamora-Chinchipe Province, Ecuador. https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.us01049838 Ecology/Infauna. Not confirmed as myrmecophytic. Range Ecuador. Markea longiflora Miers (John Miers) Annals and Magazine of Natural History, second series 4, p186, (1849). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/102947#page/210/mode/1up Synonym Markea camponoti Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, pp55/56, (1915) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/62/mode/1up Collections. (1862) Southern America; Surinam. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2874270 (1911) Southern America; French Guiana. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2874271 (1971) Brazil; Territoirio do Roraima, Indian trail from Surucucu, vicinity of Uaica airstrip, Rio Uraricoeira. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526391 (2006) French Guiana; Kaw Mts., near Patawa, logging road. Small logging trail, left side from Mt. de Kaw road, 10 minutes beyond Patawa. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.4150390 (2006) Kaw Mts. Roadside, near eastern border of Tresor Reserve. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.4150398 Ecology/Infauna. As M. camponoti Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, pp55/56, (1915) A note in Latin. Frutex in nidis formicae = Bush in the nests of ants. And Translation from French. “Almost climbing epiphytic shrub very often encountered on the nests of the Ant Camponotus femoratus (F.), sometimes on those of an Azteca. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Range, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil, and Ecuador. Markea panamense Paul Carpenter Standley published in Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11(2), (1930.) Synonym Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standley) Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 10, (1977.) The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are probably used by ants for nests and storage. Range: Panama. Markea sessiliflora Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, p56, (1915). Type Ducke, MG15488 s.n.; no date; Brazil (MG) https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.f0bn002962 Type. Ducke, RB 18138 s.n.; no date; Brazil (B) https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.s05-9574 Synonym Markea porphyrobaphes Sandwith Other collections. (1929) Sandwith 279. Climber, overhanging creek. Flower creamy-yellow, purple within at base of tube. Guyana; Essequibo River; Moraballi Creek, near Bartica. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585082 (1929) Sandwith 518, Climber with rootlets, in swamp near right bank. Corona greenish-cream, purplish at base within. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585083 Illustration Planche 19, https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/103/mode/1up Ecology/Infauna. Ducke (1915) “Almost always in the woods in humid habitat. epiphytic.” Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Vol.1 p56. (1915.) AND. "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins frequente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de três rares exceptions, on ne Tobserve que sur les nids de Camponotus femoratis." This species is much less frequent than the M. camponoti; with rare exceptions it is observed on the nests of Camponotus femoratus. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up Dejean et al. (2018) Camponotus femoratus and C. irritabilis have a reputation as some of the world's most aggressive ant species, easily able to pierce human skin. They then inject formic acid into these wounds such that massed attacks are most uncomfortable. https://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Camponotus_femoratus Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior live together in arboreal ant gardens. This territorially-dominant association inhabited 20% of tree canopies sampled in Amazonian forest. Ant–plant relationships in the canopy of an Amazonian rainforest: the presence of an ant mosaic, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 125, issue 2, pp344–354, (2018.) Range, French Guiana. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly125 Markea spruceana A. T. Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) Kurtziana [Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias. (Kurtziana 25, (1997)). Not online. Collections (1860) Spruce s.n. Ecuador “Pulled down as we were riding through the forest. These are the only leaves that caterpillars had not quite eaten up - they seem to be 6 from the apex of a ramulus - or are they leaflets? In devexo montis Chimborazo supra tablas, (On slopes of Chimborazo (volcano) on tablas (?) at 2438m (8000ft.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimborazo Kew H. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000201977 Habitat from 2200-2650m (7218-8694ft.) in montane wet (cloud) forest at Parroquia: (near the Nono - Mindo Road) in El Pahuma Orchid Reserve, 17k E of Nanegalito. Trail from "La Guarida del Oso" to "Sendero de Los Yumbos", Quito, Pichincha Province, Ecuador, South America. Habitat notes http://www.ceiba.org/elpabirdreport.htm Range, Endemic to Ecuador (Bolivar & Pichincha Provinces.) Markea ulei (Dammer) Cuatrec. (José Cuatrecasas) Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 61(1), pp78/9. (1958) (Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.). Subscription required http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/fedr.v61:1/issuetoc Basionym Ectozoma ulei Dammer (Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37(2), pp170/1, (1906 not 1905) (Bot. Jahrb. Syst.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Other Synonyms. Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standl.) Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) using the basionym Markea panamense Standl. (Paul Carpenter Standley) Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11 (2), pp127/8 (1930). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/33588#page/133/mode/1up Ectozoma pavonii Miers (John Miers.) Markea dimorpha C.V. Morton (Conrad Vernon Morton.) Habit/Ecology/Infauna. The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are very probably used by ants for nests and storage. Orivel & Leroy also list Markea ulei as a true ant-garden epiphyte. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. (2011) Spruce (1908) and Davidson & Epstein (1989) also report ant-domatia. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae Epiphyte sur les nids d'Azteca, le plus souvent dans la forêt périodiquement inondée; habite les parties centrales et occidentales de l'Amazonie. Dêcrit du haut Juruá et Juruá-miry, et des environs de Tarapoto; recemment encore collectionnè par E. Ule au Rio Acre et aux environs de Manoáos. Epiphyte on Azteca nests, most often in periodically flooded forest; lives in the central and western parts of the Amazon’ the upper Jurua and Jurua-miry and the surroundings of Tarapoto; recently still collected by E. Ule at Rio Acre and around Manaus. Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Vol.1 p55. (1915.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Range. Panama (Barro Colorado Island), Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Page 57 lists other un-named epiphytic species on arboreal ant nests. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up SOLANACÉES EPIPHYTES SUR LES NIDS DE FOURMIS. = Epiphytic Solanaceae on the nests of ants. A: species 1: small green flowers on a nest of species of the genus Azteca. Central and western Amazonia. B: large flowers, long tube corolla. a): species 2: inflorescence lax (broad), pauciflorous (few flowers or inflorescences), pendulous, with often very long peduncle (to 40cm), slender, simple or two or even three times branched; pedicel 1-2 1/2 cm. Calyx green, corolla scarlet, flat limb, stamens of tube length. Often on the nests of Camponotus femoratus, sometimes on those of Azteca. "Hylaea" whole. b): flowers in the short and thick twigs (Aborted or metamorphosed twig that simulates a stem). Corolla of fundamental greenish or whitish color; stamens slightly longer than half the tube. species 3: petioles and basilar parts of the rib of the leaves, spongy, very thick. Sessile flowers, solitary at the end of short branches, often geminated (gathered in pairs). Uniformly green calyx; whitish green or yellowish corolla or even ivory white, almost actinomorphic (which exhibits radial symmetry). Almost always on the nests of Camponotus femoratus. Belem do Para and region between Belem and Braganca. Petioles and rib of leaves, herbaceous. Flower fairly long pedicelled. Corolla bilabiate, whitish green or yellowish, marbled purple brownish. species 4: inflorescence, racemo-cymose (flowers arranged in a cyme- with the main axis ending in a flower) with up to ten flowers. Whitish calyx, traversed by purple veins. On nests of Camponotus femoratus. Eastern half of the Amazon. species 5: geminous (gathered in pairs) or solitary flower. Uniformly green calyx. On the nests of species of the genus Azteca. Central and western Amazonia. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up
  2. Continuing the subject in my last post. With 790 members in my Facebook group I had asked for assistance translating any pertinent epiphytic/ant-plant notes in the document below from French to English. But as is usual, the response has been zero. I am able to translate much of it but there is always not knowing what one does not know. Thus, it would be helpful if someone with Francais as their first language could list any appropriate sentences in French along with a translation in English along with the species name the comments allude to. Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up I have researched the taxonomy and found type species and correct modern names etc.
  3. Philpatrick recently provided me with an interesting link to myrmecophytic fig species, one of which is hypothesized to have evolved a way to provide arboreal ants with domatia building materials. A Facebook botanist/explorer friend has been providing photos of Philippine mistletoes with apparent ant relationships. His most recent photos suggest that material for domatias under construction on a Scurrula mistletoe are perhaps purposely provided by the mistletoe. Which of course suggests co-evolution. It surely suggests more study is required and one hopes my comments will encourage this. https://www.facebook.com/groups/philippineplants/ https://www.facebook.com/groups/498723016920977/ Leads recently provided by Jay have also provided much new information that will be covered in a 2020 edition of my e/book-database, especially in the "Other Plant Families" section.
  4. Jay, I am quoting your last paragraph re Philodendron in THE BOOK. Appropriately credited and linked to this site of course. Thanks to this thread and Philpatrick's lead regarding myrmecophytic figs, I have more to keep me busy on rainy days. My Facebook Myrmecophyte group is currently attracting a new member every day, and from many corners of our planet, which is surely connected to the release of my e/book. One hopes that among the young, there will be the leaders of the future.
  5. Yes, a truly fantastic article that I will need to study in detail. It provides new leads for additions to my 2020 edition and photos I would love to have access to. Would future book editions provide much better dissemination to the world's myrmecophyte fraternity of the invaluable information Jay and his contacts provide? Outside of the jargon filled world of academia there are very few information sources for the lay public. I certainly welcome others to assist or even take over my book project. I also welcome corrections or whatever, but feed back so far has been virtually zero. Indeed, have my efforts been a waste of my time? Yet from the constant rate of new members now joining my Facebook group from all over the world, it seems it is being spread widely. Incidentally, I promote all of the pertinent information platforms. Being partisan as some so evidently are, does NOT help the spread of knowledge. New World ant gardens were once better known than Old World examples, presumably because of easier access. Certainly it was thought (in Europe?) that ant gardens were only common in the New World tropics where most had long been studied (obviously rather poorly?). Dr Eve Kaufman (2003) in her ground breaking study found them to be abundant in the tropics of Southeast Asia." http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/volltexte/2003/273/pdf/KaufmannEva.pdf Feedback. Its correctly Dolichoderinae. The very large ant-garden sizes Jay quotes are certainly new to me and presumably to most if not all Old World field workers. Also, I am not aware if Australia has any ant gardens. I have never seen one or found a written record. We do have myrmecophyte guilds but that means little in this regard. Already my 2019 edition is being superseded. For example, explorer botanist Mark Gregory Rule has provided photos of another Philippine mistletoe species with an ant inhabited haustorium. Of course, these photos raise more questions than answers without ecological study, but interest is being raised among those with access to these plant's habitats. Jay. Are your contacts working in the field sufficiently interested to read my book/data base and provide pertinent comments and habitat photos?
  6. I am adding Disterigma utleyorum to a 2020 edition of THE BOOK. (Currently it is raining again here) As an ant garden resident it warrants inclusion. I welcome any news regarding other epiphytic species. My impression is that the others mentioned above are terrestrial????
  7. This work has at times been almost overwhelming. During our wet winters, it is not hard to stay indoors and write, but summer is at last here, so I will be outside a lot more working on my land or cycling our many bike trails etc. I will try to keep updating this data base but in mere months I will be eighty with all that such implies. Therefore, perhaps others will take over updating this resource in future. Certainly, a comprehensive chapter by Jay Vanini on cultivation would add immensely to its usefulness. It follows that I welcome reports of the errors that I am certain must be many in a work of this size. A major advantage of an E/database is that it can be continually improved. As I write there have only been 18 views of this thread. Facebook surely has many flaws but its outreach is immensely superior. A lot of photos came from Facebook contacts. A thought for the future is that appropriately experienced individuals could concentrate on specific chapters.
  8. A Van der Pijl 773 (BO) Nengo, Bone Regency, South Sulawesi collection is recorded by H&J p281 as “Pollen and flower characters are also uniform” (referring to all their Sulawesi M. tuberosa variants) “except in Van der Pijl's collection, which also differs in the massive (stiff) black spines, red under sides to the leaves and caducous (quickly lost) stipules. The final treatment of these specimens must await further material.” Perhaps some connection?
  9. KLU I have since discovered is University Malaysia Herbarium, Kuala Lumpur. It seems it is not digitised.
  10. I place this here for obvious reasons. Will the real Myrmecodia bracteata please reveal itself. M. bracteata nom. nud. See M. tuberosa Jack “bracteata”. I have no source for the name of this “variant”. It possibly originates from one of the following collections (H&J p279) but they have proven difficult to locate on line. C. R. Huxley & Jebb, https://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/565633 Except. Anderson, Jar: S 9873, (1958) On a stunted padang (open area) tree, in the centre of peat swamp. Borneo Island, Malaysia. Sarawak Province, Lobok Pasir, Baram River. Yet both of these Leiden sheets are endorsed M. tuberosa ‘muelleri’ sic. http://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2936351 And, Purseglove P4893, Lae, Sarawak, Telok Asam, Bako Nat. Park, http://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2936354 Collections not found on line. . Borneo, Central Kalimantan, Pangkalang, Westerafd, Dunselman 153 (BO). Brunei, Tutong District, van Niel 4330 (L). Sarawak, Bako, Carrick & Enoch 167 (KLU) presumably K. L. U. Sarawak. Baram River, Haviland & Hose s.n (1894.) (K). Sarawak, Kuching. Beccari P.B. 361 (FI.)
  11. So they have removed the evidence of their error rather than fixing it. Typical bureaucrats. Myrmecodia beccarii was recorded on Rio Tinto's land by their own surveyors; so without doubt very rare populations are being destroyed. That is if any are now left.
  12. Have you checked it against this species. H. davisii Jebb & C. R. Huxley, sp. nov. The tuberous epiphytes of the Rubiaceae 7: a revision of the genus Hydnophytum, Blumea 64 p52. (2019). With illustration and a member of their West New Guinea group. Holotype, Davis et al. 800, K, isotypes BO, L, MAN. West New Guinea, West Papua Province, Kebar valley, (1995). https://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/669947 BO. (Bogor) H. Davis et al. 800 http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000761943 BO. H. Davis et al. 800 http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000761944 Leiden H. Davis et al 800 http://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L%20%200495915 Leiden, Davis et al, 800 http://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L%20%200495916 Description. Tubers large (to 30x20 cm.), chambered and reminiscent of the amazing terrestrial species H. caminiferum in having chimneyed entrances, yet this species is epiphytic. Branches to 1m. long, flowers sessile in leaf nodes, with an iridescent quality, corolla rich in raphides, perianth in fours, fleshy and fragile. Corolla throats white-hairy, 5 mm across, with yellowish anthers. Habitat/Range. Mid-montane primary forest on ridge of granites and volcanic sediments. On stunted, 10 m. (33 ft.) leaning Nothofagus (Southern Beech) trees, rooting on the underside of branches in moss. Trail from Andjai to Gunung (Mt.) Nettoti near Base Camp 2, at 1740 m. (5709 ft.) Kebar Valley, Manokwari District, West Papua Province, West New Guinea Island. Infauna. Unknown but no ants recorded.
  13. Myrmecodia paradoxa C. R. Huxley & Jebb. sp nov. The tuberous epiphytes of the Rubiaceae 5: A revision of Myrmecodia, Blumea Vol. 37 (2) p319, (1993), In key P275. Clypeoli well defined by a rim of spines lying in one plane, hiding the alveoli p17. M. paradoxa http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/565633 Type, Papua New Guinea, Jebb 249, holotype LAE. However, Lae 258253 is filed as Myrmecodia platytyrea subsp. platytyrea, M. Jebb 249, 18 Apr (1983), Papua New Guinea, Sandaun (West Sepik Province) 6 k. NE of Telefomin on path to Eliptamin. Habitat: Casuarina/ Allocasuarina stand on sloping ground. Habit. Low epiphyte. Semi-circular arrays of entrance holes on tuber. Fruit red, pyrenes 7. http://www.pngplants.org/search.htm Description. Superficially very similar to M. platytyrea but tuber dissections reveal wide, warted chambers surrounded by an open network of smooth chambers similar to those of M. sterrophylla. Tuber pendent, irregularly cylindrical, often curved downwards, 15x8 cm, ridged, coloured dark brown with spines mostly on ridges. Entrance holes in semi-circular arcs; pores present. Stem solitary, unbranched, ascending, tapered over 3-4 cm at apex; clypeoli very prominent, longer than wide, densely rimmed by simple spines to 1 cm long. Leaves clustered at stem apex; fruit red, seed 7-8. Habitat/Range in low positions on She Oak Casuarina/Allocasuarina trees "or montane forest" at 1720-1880 m. (5643-6168 ft.) sympatric with M. sterrophylla.
  14. Myrmecodia kutubuensis C. R. Huxley & Jebb. The tuberous epiphytes of the Rubiaceae 5: A revision of Myrmecodia, Blumea Vol. 37 (2) p294, (1993) http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/565633 Type, Papua New Guinea, H. J. Gay, 23, (1993) holotype LAE. Not found online. Other collections. Dr Honor Gay, 60, Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kutubu north bank, ½m above water’s edge on a bankside (NOT bankshire sic) tree. With Lecanopteris sinuosa. Infauna. Pheidole ants. http://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2936142 Lae 258375 no image. Gay 57. As kukubuensis in error. http://www.pngplants.org/
  15. Myrmecodia gracilispina C. R. Huxley & Jebb. The tuberous epiphytes of the Rubiaceae 5: A revision of Myrmecodia, Blumea Vol. 37 (2) p331, (1993). http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/565633 Type, Papua New Guinea, Jebb106, holotype LAE. Jebb 106. Is filed as M. garcilispina in error. (1980) Eastern Highlands Province, past Duto on road beyond Lufa, Mt. Michael. in Nothofagus - Castanopsis forest. http://www.pngplants.org/
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