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Derrick

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  1. Ecological Research. Angelina Rowell, James Cook University, Cairns. Studied the relationships between Myrmecodia beccarii and Philidris ants in North Queensland mangroves. She reported (pers. comm.) that resident ants actually castrate their home plants by cutting up its flowers and transporting resultant pieces to their nests within tubers. Angelina found more buds and flowers were produced on ant-colonised, thus well-fed plants, so more fruit should develop on them. Yet, there were more fruits on uncolonised specimens, even though their bud and flower numbers were nutritionally constrained through a lack of ant feeding. Therefore, ants must be removing flowers before pollination, resulting inevitably in lower fruit/seed numbers. Furthermore, Angelina found that ants only removed flowers from their host plant, not from nearby uncolonised plants. Angelina’s Anova statistical analysis, showed that there was no significant difference between the fruit number on colonised versus uncolonised plants (i. e. fruit production is equal). Therefore, ants are not increasing home plant reproductive output. To belabor a point, trophic benefits that the plants are getting from their ants is not transferred to greater seed production because of flower castration. There are greater numbers of leaves on colonised plants, which in theory translates to a greater growth rate in the plant tuber and bigger domatia. But this project did not have enough time allocated to measure increase in plant growth. In summary, more buds, flowers and leaves on colonised plants does not result in more fruit and seed production. Angelina also noted on another thread. "We are looking at the spined form that occurs in the Cairns area. It seems that the majority of the flowers that are left on the plants by the ants develop into fruit. Not 100% sure if it is self pollinating - yet .....The ant interactions with this species is very interesting." I have tried to find more information on line but have not been successful. Attn Dr Guillaume Chomicki. This surely is important to the field of mutualisms.? It is very probable that resident ants are deliberately improving the growth rates of home tubers. Photos Angelina Rowell.
  2. It is sad that too many members of ant-plant circles seem focused primarily on the acquisition of plants with little regard for an acquisition of knowledge. Certainly, unless I duplicate information here, that I have already disseminated on my Facebook group. It DOES NOT get shared. For example, I have posted an update to my section (it took weeks of long day's work) on "Other Ant-plant Families" which now lists probably all known Neotropical ant-plant Melastomataceae (including terrestrials) plus additions to other Neotropical ant-friendly families. I have vastly extended this section due to an influx of South American members (mostly academics) into my Facebook group because my tome is being translated into Spanish. There is an automatic Dropbox link on my group to this rather large section. https://www.facebook.com/groups/498723016920977/ I regularly promote this group but I am not aware of any reciprocation. And let us be honest, it is mostly moribund. Another fascinating fact is the VERY NOVEL presence of extrafloral nectaries in Myrmecodia horrida. See. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90306-4_10-1
  3. Aurelien. May I use a few of these photos in my tome.
  4. Thanks for this. I have removed it from my tome.
  5. Neotropical Myrmecophilous Melastomataceae. Most of these names are historic because all members of the tribe Miconieae are now placed in a sole genus Miconia. In my 2020 edition I hope to list all changes under Miconia along with as many synonyms as possible. Most species are shrubs or even small trees but some are hemi-epiphytic and occasionally truly epiphytic, even occurring in ant gardens. However, because they have so much interest to students of myrmecophytes I am listing all ant friendly species in my tome which is mostly reserved for epiphytic species. Allomaieta grandiflora, Blakea austin-smithii, Blakea chlorantha, Blakea formicaria, Blakea involvens, Blakea jativae, Blakea perforata, Blakea podagrica. Blakea podagrica subsp. ciliata, Blakea polyantha, Blakea punctulata, Blakea subconnata, Blakea subvaginata, Clidemia acostae, Clidemia allardii, Clidemia allardii subsp. maranonensis, Clidemia allardii, Clidemia ayangannensis, Clidemia ciliata, Clidemia ciliata var. testiculata, Clidemia cymosa, Clidemia collina, Clidemia crenulata, Clidemia ferox, Clidemia foliosa, Clidemia folsomii, Clidemia heptamera, Clidemia heterophylla , Clidemia inobsepta, Clidemia juruensis, Clidemia killipii, Clidemia lanuginosa, Clidemia myrmecina, Clidemia neblinae, Clidemia pilosa , Clidemia pubescens, Clidemia rodriguezii, Clidemia setosa, Clidemia trichogona, Clidemia spectabilis, Clidemia sprucei, Clidemia taurina, Clidemia tenebrosa , Clidemia tococoidea, Clidemia ventricosa, Conostegia dentata, Conostegia hispida, Conostegia inusitata, Conostegia setosa, Henriettella cuneata, Maieta guianensis, Maieta neblinensis, Maieta poeppigii, Merianthera burlemarxii, Miconia bailloniana, Miconia expansa, Miconia flaccida, Miconia hospitalis, Ossaea bullifera, Tococa aristata, Tococa bullifera , Tococa bullifera var. glabrata, Tococa capitata, Tococa caquetana, Tococa caudata, Tococa ciliata, Tococa cordata, Tococa coronata, Tococa filiformis, Tococa gonoptera, Tococa guianensis, Tococa hirta, Tococa lancifolia, Tococa lancifolia var. anaphysca, Tococa leticiana, Tococa macrophysca, Tococa macroptera, Tococa macedoi, Tococa macrosperma, Tococa obovata subsp. obovata, Tococa parviflora, Tococa parviflora var. mansenrichensis, Tococa tetramera, Tococa pauciflora, Tococa quadrialata, Tococa racemifera, Tococa rotundifolia, Tococa spadiciflora, Tococa stellata, Tococa stenoptera, Tococa stephanotricha, Tococa symphyandra, Tococa undabunda, Topobea gracilis, Topobea inflata, Topobea pluvialis.
  6. Aurelien. Having you back in the group has focused more of my attention here. One result is that I have found more information about this family (only Neotropical spp.) after searching for more information regarding Blakea spp., and ants. There is an enormous volume of information in this study, but it will require many long hours sorting out the epiphytic (and hemiepiphytc) myrmecophytes that I specialize in, because of course many are terrestrial species. Neotropical myrmecophilous Melastomataceae – an annotated list and key. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230028715_Neotropical_myrmecophilous_Melastomataceae_-_an_annotated_list_and_key
  7. As a popular song once said. Two out of three ain't bad. Note A. myrmecophilus is a synonym. GESNERIACEAE Rich. & Juss. (Louis Claude Marie Richard & Antoine Laurent de Jussieu) Essai sur les Propriétés Médicales des Plantes, ed. 2, p192, (1816) (Essai Propr. Méd. Pl., ed. 2) https://archive.org/stream/essaisurlespropr00cand/essaisurlespropr00cand_djvu.txt Aeschynanthus Jack. (William Jack) In Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14: p42. (1823.) (Trans. Linn. Soc. London) Stored in BHL as Vol 14. (1825.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/13693#page/47/mode/1up Habit. A large variable genus of mostly epiphytic species. Some with ant affiliations. Habitat/ Range. About 160 species from India and Sri Lanka through Southeast Asia to southern China and southwest to New Guinea and finally the Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. (Weber, 2004; Middleton, 2007). D.J. Middleton, In A revision of Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae) in Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 68(1): pp1–63. (2016.) doi: 10.3850/S2382581216000016. https://www.nparks.gov.sg/sbg/research/publications/gardens-bulletin-singapore/-/media/sbg/gardens-bulletin/gbs_68_01_y2016_v68_01/4-4-68-1-1-y2016-v68p1-gbs-pg1.pdf Aeschynanthus albidus (Blume) Steud. (Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel) In Nomenclature Botanique ed. 2, 1: p32. (1840). (Nome ncl. Bot.) Not found online. Basionym Bignonia albida Blume (Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Blume) In Catalogus. p81. (1823). (Catalogus) See page bottom. A link can be found via Tropicos using Bignonia albida. Ecology/Infauna. Recorded growing on 9 epiphytic ant garden nests supporting 3 colonies of Camponotus irritabilis. Andreas Weissflog, Eva Kaufmann & Ulrich Maschwitz, Ant gardens of Camponotus (Myrmotarsus) irritabilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) and Hoya elliptica (Apocynaceae) in Southeast Asia, Asian Myrmecology. Volume 9, (2017) http://www.asian-myrmecology.org/publications/am09/weissflog-et-al-2017-am009001.pdf Aeschynanthus dischidioides (Ridl.) D. J. Middleton, Edinburgh J. Bot. 64: p425 (2007). Basionym Micraeschynanthus dischidioides Ridl., Fl. Malay Penin. 5: p325 (1925). TYPE: Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Gunung Tahan, 1670 m, Ridley, H. N. 16122 (lectotype K, designated by Middleton (2007); isolectotype SING [SING0089714]). (Fig. 5, 6) Synonyms. A. myrmecophilus P. Woods, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: p483 (1975); Turner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 47(1): p243 (1997 [‘1995’]). Type: Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Cameron Highlands, Robinson’s Falls, 1500 m, 16 April 1968, Woods, P. J. B. 616 (holotype E [E00062778]). A. hildebrandii auct. non Hemsl. ex Hook.f.: Ridley, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 32: p502 (1896); Ridley, J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 44: p15 (1905); Ridley, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74(2): p734 (1909); Ridley, Fl. Mal. Pen. 2: p499 (1923). Description in detail with images of attractive bird pollinated flowers. P15-19. https://www.nparks.gov.sg/sbg/research/publications/gardens-bulletin-singapore/-/media/sbg/gardens-bulletin/gbs_68_01_y2016_v68_01/4-4-68-1-1-y2016-v68p1-gbs-pg1.pdf Ecology/Infauna. Epiphyte with pendent stems often reported in ant gardens along with Lecanopteris or Dischidia. Habitat. Lower montane forest at 1100-2000m (3609-6562ft.) Range. Currently only recorded on the Malay peninsula but may extend further to Thailand and Sumatra Island. Aeschynanthus fecundus Woods. (Patrick James Blythe Woods) In Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 33: p482. (1975). (Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh.) Not digitised. Ecology. A retrieval test using 20 seed of this plant species found that Camponotus irritabilis ignored them all. This infers that it is an improbable member of ant gardens but that is surely not conclusive evidence. Seed of Dischidia nummularia in this study (p3) were also totally ignored, yet they are common members of varied ant-plant guilds. However, dischidias parachute seed does not depend upon ants for distribution. http://www.asian-myrmecology.org/publications/am09/weissflog-et-al-2017-am009001.pdf
  8. I have vastly amended my notes on Poikilospermum cordifolium above, and added more to my 2020 edition of my e/book - data base. Indeed, my chapter on "Other Ant-plant Families especially is already much enlarged as I drill down into leads provided by Aurelien, Jay and Satoshi.
  9. Anthurium obtusum (Engl.) Grayum, (Michael Howard Grayum,) in Phytologia 82(1): p35. (1997) (Phytologia). Basionym Anthurium trinerve var. obtusum Engl. (Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(3): pp357-358, (1898) (Bot. Jahrb. Syst.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/209214#page/367/mode/1up Synonym. Anthurium trinerve Miq. (Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel) In Linnaea 17: pp66–67, (1843) (Linnaea). https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/106859#page/72/mode/1up Etymology. Obtusum. essentially means blunt. Habit/Ecology. A confirmed ant garden resident using a synonym Anthurium trinerve Miq. In Aragua Cedeño, et al. Ant Gardens of Surumoni, Venezuela Selbyana Vol. 20, No. 1, pp125-132, (1999.) https://www.jstor.org/stable/41760015?seq=1 Photos. http://www.aroidpictures.fr/GENERA/ANTHURIUMM-Z/anthobtusum.html Range tropical Central and South America. My E/book - data base 2020 will have more details of ant associated Araceae. Most will be very clearly illustrated.
  10. Columnea crassifolia Brongn. ex Lem. (Adolphe Théodore (de) Brongniart) ex (Antoine) Charles Lemaire.) L'Horticulteur Universel 6: pp203-205, t. 7. (1844). (Hort. Universel) Not yet digitised. http://legacy.tropicos.org/name/14000978 An attractively flowering upright small shrub. Image. https://plantingman.com/columnea-crassifolia-flowering-plants/ Ecology. Mentioned as an ant garden resident on this Nancy Botanical Gardens, France, web page. https://tools.bgci.org/garden.php?id=191 I have not been able to find supporting evidence on the www, but it is a probable contender. Range. Guatemala. Honduras, Mexico.
  11. Another for Aurelien. Psychilis. Raf. (Constantine Samuel Rafinesque), In Flora Telluriana 4: p40. (1838). (Fl. Tellur.) Note there are five number series in Flora Telluriana vol.. 4, this p40 is in series 5. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7430200#page/386/mode/1up Species. http://www.theplantlist.org/browse/A/Orchidaceae/Psychilis/ Psychilis atropurpurea (Willd) Sauleda, (Rubén Primitivo Sauleda) In Phytologia 65: p6. (1988). (Phytologia) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12985222#page/8/mode/1up Basionym. Epidendrum atropurpureum Willd. (Carl Ludwig von Willdenow) In Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4: p115. (1805). (Sp. Pl.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/670785#page/114/mode/1up Synonyms. Encyclia atropurpurea (Willd.) Schltr.(1914), Epidendrum atropurpureum Willd. (1806), Epidendrum atropurpureum var. laciniatum Ames, F.T.Hubb. & C.Schweinf. (1935), Limodorum purpureum Lour. ex Steud. (1841.) Description. A small to medium sized epiphyte with pyriform (pear-shaped) deeply ribbed pseudobulbs with 2-4, coriaceous (leathery) stiff, erect, linear to narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, truncate, smooth margined involute leaves. Inflorescence to 60" (1.524m) terminal, erect, stiff, partially enveloped by tubular scarious sheaths, successively producing many attractive flowers with scarious, ovate, acuminate floral bracts. Ecology/Infauna. Its extensive root mass provides nesting opportunities for arboreal ants. Habitat. In cactus thorn scrub, semi-arid pine woods and broadleaf forests from sea level to 1100m. (3609ft.) Range. The Dominican Republic and Haiti, Hispaniola Island, Greater Antilles Archipelago, Caribbean. Cultivation. Requires warmth. Flowering spring, to autumn. http://www.orchidspecies.com/psyatropurpurea.htm Habitat photo. Beautiful flowers.
  12. Another especially for Aurelien. Araeococcus Brongn. (Adolphe Théodore (de) Brongniart.) In Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 2, 15: p370. (1841). (Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2,) Type A. micranthus. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36284721#page/374/mode/1up P O W O. http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:4884-1 Species. http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:4884-1#children The genus name is from the Greek “araios” (thin, weak, slight) and the Latin “coccus” (berry). This genus is divided into two subgenera: the type subgenus and Pseudaraeococcus Mez. Range, northern South America, Central America and Trinidad Araeococcus flagellifolius Harms (Hermann August Theodor Harms.) In Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 10: p784. (1929). (Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem) Not digitised. Type. HT: Huebner 58; July 1929; Brazil: Amazonas: Rio Apuahu, Rio Negro drainage, B (photo, F. http://legacy.tropicos.org/name/4300058 Habit/ Ecology. An attractive, unique epiphytic species with long whip-like bronze-hued leaves about 60cm. (2ft.) long from a slender ovoid pseudobulb. Its low-growing slender flower stems are pale red, and bear many small pink flowers that become blue-black berries. Its possession of pseudobulbs infers it may be myrmecodomic (ant-housing). Habitat/Range. Near rivers at elevations around 213m, (700ft.) in the upper Amazon region. Etymology. Araeococcus is from the Greek araeo, meaning few, and kokkos seed, the genus having the smallest fruit and the fewest seeds in the family. Flagellifolius refers to its whip-like leaves. https://journal.bsi.org/V21/5/ Cultivation, it thrives out doors in southern California. Photos. https://floredeguyane.piwigo.com/index?/category/172-epiphytes
  13. I am sure that there is much more to learn about ants and bromeliads but this is all I have found regarding this one. Although it may not even be myrmecophytic it certainly grows among such tillandsias. Tillandsia pseudosetacea Ehlers & Rauh. (Renate Ehlers & Werner Rauh) In Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt 58: pp35–37, f.21. (1986). (Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt). Not yet digitised. Ecology. It occurs with T. occulta, H. Luther, (1997) Type found on a logging road NE of Panuco, Sinaloa, Mexico at 1100m. (3609ft.) along a small stream, epiphytic on Bombaceae in pine/oak forest with Tillandsia caput-medusae (a myrmecodomic species), and T. makoyana (a member of the T. utriculata group thus possibly (probably?) myrmecodomic. http://www.bromeliad.org.au/pictures/Tillandsia/occulta.htm “At the place where we collected, I would guess there were thousands of T. chapalillaensis, hundreds of T. pseudosetacea, tens of T. makoyana and T. achyrostachys and few T. ionantha.” http://www.bromeliad.org.au/pictures/Tillandsia/chapalillaensis.htm Thus, it may only be an ant-plant guild resident. Range, Mexico (Sinaloa, Guerrero, Oaxaca). http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:286194-2
  14. Thank you Aurélien. Lots of names here to keep me busy while I cope with Covid 19 Lockdown here in NZ. Often when checking new possible epiphytic myrmecophyte names for my Ebook/database, I find even more examples. Quite a few new names that will appear in my 2020 edition (if the virus does not get me - I will soon to be 80) have also been added to my Facebook group because there is currently much interest from South American university students/graduates. One of my Facebook members is translating the book into Spanish, our planets fourth most spoken language. Here is one that you can update if you accept their research. Codonanthopsis. Mansf. (Rupert Mansfield) Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 36, p120. (1934) (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.) Actually vol.37 but behind Wiley paywall. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/fedr.19340370103 Revision. Chautems & Mat. Perret, Redefinition of the Neotropical Genera Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. and Codonanthopsis Mansf. (Gesneriaceae). Selbyana Vol.31 No.2 pp143-156, (2013) Codonanthopsis has been enlarged from two to 13 species distributed in Central America, the Caribbean, north-western South-America, and the Amazonian basin. This expanded circumscription of Codonanthopsis requires the transfer of ten taxa traditionally recognized as Codonanthe and one originally described in Paradrymonia. This publication includes 11 new combinations and 9 lectotypifications.” https://gesneriads.info/library/redefinition-of-the-neotropical-genera-codonanthe/ Habit/Ecology/Infauna. Epiphytic always growing in ant gardens. Seed resembles the eggs and larvae of ants which find them attractive (pheromones?) to the degree that they collect and plant them in the walls of their arboreal carton nests to create ant gardens. Range. Central America, the Caribbean, north-western South-America, and the Amazonian basin. Codonanthopsis macradenia (Don. Sm). Chautems & Mat. Perret (Alain P. Chautems & Mathieu Perret) comb nov. Redefinition of the Neotropical Genera Codonanthe (Mart.) Hanst. and Codonanthopsis Mansf. (Gesneriaceae). Selbyana Vol.31 No.2 p153 (2013.) https://gesneriads.info/library/redefinition-of-the-neotropical-genera-codonanthe/ Basionym Codonanthe macradenia Don Sm. (John Donell Smith) Botanical Gazette 25 (3), pp154/5, (1898) (Bot. Gaz.) http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/94870#page/224/mode/1up Type, Costa Rica, Boruca, (1892), Tonduz 6769 (lectotype US00126533! designated by Moore (1973) isolectotypes at BM, BR, P, U. Ecology/Infauna, An obligate ant-garden inhabitant. (Orivel & Leroy. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. (2011) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae Evidence for Partitioning of Belezean Ant Nest Substrate by a Characteristic Flora, Paul M. Catling, Biotropica, Vol. 27, 4, pp 535-537, (1995.) http://www.jstor.org/stable/2388970 Range, Mexico - Oaxaca, Central America, (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.) South America (Colombia - Choco, La Guajira, Santander).) Propagation, easy from cuttings or seed. Ant Gardens. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae
  15. Of course, what I should have done was to search for Antrophyum lanceolatum in the fern section of by E/book, which I would have found listed as a synonym under Polytaenium feei. Thus, saving me a few hours of work. Yes, I certainly cannot remember every name let alone the many details I have added to this large database.
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