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Forum for Epiphytic Myrmecophytes


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Everything posted by Philpatrick

  1. I thought thekii was a patronym (male, last name Thek = thek-ii). Though I found this in a book: “thekii From the Fijian name ‘theke theke nkau’ for tuber-forming ant-plants, literally meaning ‘testicles of trees’. (Squamellaria)” (Urs Eggli, Leonard E. Newton p.239). Trying to "piece" the name together. This suggests thekii is derived from a Fijian word for a particular body part and not the last name of a person who is male. Very interesting! What is the meaning of the word theke? I found the Fijian word "ceke" = enlarged family jewels, which is a very close match. An online translator showed ni kau = of wood, and vu ni kau = stem of wood. In a Fijian-English dictionary, I looked up the word kau, I believe this means tree or wood. Couldn't find nkau, but I did find vu ni kau. "vunikau n. plant, shrub, tree." (Gatty, Ronald p.311). I was reading in this useful Fijian-English dictionary: "The letter c is pronounced as a soft th, as in this..." (Gatty, Ronald p.37). So does this mean ceke is pronounced "theke", because "c" is pronounced "th"? I have not found any Fijian words that are written with a "th" as in "theke", in fact I don't think the letter "h" is written in the Fijian language. I did find that F, H and P are used in Fijian from foreign loan words ( words adopted from another language). https://omniglot.com/writing/fijian.htm So "theke" could be the written audible form of the Fijian written word "ceke". I am not sure yet if "theke" is adopted.
  2. I read it. I found blob and blobby. I was looking at definitions of the word blob. The closest thing, I am thinking, for that usage of the word is this definition: Blob: an indeterminate mass or shape. Blob almost fits but not exactly, because the shape of the plant is determinate mostly; though it does change and grow over time. "The Blob" a 1958 movie is what I think of as a blob. I would think the Fijian local name for Squamellaria is more fitting, though blob would be more appropriate than that.
  3. Yeah, I hadn't checked your book for it. Maybe I should have because I didn't know you were going to create a new entry. I could have caught that for you. For future reference I will reference it in the future. It shows that you've done a thorough job with your book. I shared the link because it was fascinating. I mainly find it interesting because this fern can get so much nutrition from the ants wouthout having much to offer the ants in exchange. Some of these plant names can change so much. The same plant with a different name. It helps to have a resource that lists the synonym, basionym etc. I like the research article. The research was performed under the name Antrophyum lanceolatum, It is evidence that there are many more unknown mutualistic relationships between ants and plants.
  4. Lead up/down the garden path: to mislead or deceive. I didn't know what the phrase meant so I had to look it up.
  5. After reading the pages again, I found some of the spelling was different. "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins frequente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de três rares exceptions, on ne Tobserve que sur les nids de Camponotusfemoratis." Suggested spelling: "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins fréquente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de très rares exceptions, on ne l'observe que sur les nids de Camponotus femoratus." Suggested changes: frequente › fréquente (added accent mark "é") três › très ( changed accent mark from ê to è). Tobserve › l'observe Camponotusfemoratus › Camponotus femoratus
  6. This article has some good information. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316666507_Phylogeny_of_the_tribes_Juanulloeae_and_Solandreae_Solanaceae
  7. I really like the third image. It gives me ideas for a potluck. I'm thinking butter, sour cream, chopped green onions and bacon pieces would be good as toppings for that nice looking tater. I am glad you shared this. Amazing post!
  8. This is what two fresh pollen grains looked like under reflected light before staining and treatment.
  9. I had to recheck, restain and reimage a pollen sample to find that the pollen features were consistent. In the last image I think it is interesting because this pollen looks like the exine has a croton pattern, you can see the raised croton pattern especially in the last image from the set above. It looks like interconnected rings with 5/6 triangular columns on the muri. The raised areas on the exine appear darker in color. The muri is the raised area forming the reticulated pattern, the columns on the muri form the croton pattern. The lumina are the spaces between the muri. The brochus, is a lumen ( singular of lumina ) including half the width of the muri. To measure a brochus ( singular of brochi ), measure a lumen including half the width of the muri; halfway into the muri surrounding the lumen. The measurement of that space, the brochus, could be useful to know. The pollen has an exine pattern that closely resembles a croton pattern, but it could be another type of exine patterning. More resolved images will help identify this. Hydrated, stained, transmitted light brightfield.
  10. Widefield fluorescence micrograph of hydrated Squamellaria pollen. The pollen above was collected from a plant identified as Squamellaria. It has been stained to distinguish features. The linear aperture, the colpus (colpi plural), emits a yellow color on the pollen circumference. The red color is the exine. Dry Squamellaria pollen imaged with reflected light. In the autofluorescence image above the pollen is fresh and has not been stained. The pollen appears to be tricolpate, meaning there are three colpi. The cross section of the pollen in the polar orientation shows the three colpi simultaneously (blue arrows). The colpi are the three furrows in the circumference of the pollen wall. Stained pollen surface detail. I am working on more detailed images.
  11. Echinate spore of Microgramma bismarckii under incident darkfield illumination.
  12. What type of lighting does this plant receive? What is the measured humidity in the plants growing environment? https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://plantpathology.ca.uky.edu/files/ppfs-or-h-05.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiXofPembDlAhW1Ln0KHWTTD0MQFjAHegQICRAB&usg=AOvVaw20KcWIT3EFgTShKlOdJJUY I have had plants with blister like growths on the leaves; not so much on the petioles like your plant is showing. A lab could test your plant to ensure it isn't a pathogen. Could it be a pathogen, the nature of the plant, or caused by adverse growing conditions? It could be oedema. You could quarantine the plant until a solid diagnosis is confirmed.
  13. According to this link, not all Squamellaria utilize the same metabolic pathway. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151317.t001
  14. Occurrence records for Myrmecodia beccarii: https://biocache.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Myrmecodia+beccarii&q=&fq=&wkt=&lat=&lon=&radius=&offset=20&max=20
  15. The link above is not working: Error: unknown No record found with id: 151fcb20-a39b-4cba-b8a8-ccf03066bf33
  16. The seeds from the fruit germinated and are developing nicely. The seedlings have large cavities compared to their size. At first there is not an opening and the hypocotyl is smooth. The thin surface of the caudex, where the opening is forming underneath, sheds away to reveal a cavity at their base.
  17. Thank you. The drops are about a millimeter across, very noticeable by the way they refract light, and more frequent on fronds with sori. As a test, some ants were placed on a frond and they consumed the drops, with some of the meal leftover adhering to them. That plant would be very interesting to see. The informative Neotropical blueberry article has great images with amazing color.
  18. According to a phylogenetic tree of plants with extrafloral nectaries (foliar nectaries for non flowering plants); there are several ferns in the polypodaceae family with foliar nectaries. I rechecked the L. curtisii again and it does have some drops forming. The location of the drops matches the location of the nectaries of several other polypod ferns. Also in another article: "Bracken nectaries are present and active on both young and mature fronds, whereas Polypodium nectaries are active only on the young fronds." (American Journal of Botany 85(5): 736–739. 1998.). This link has interesting information on fern nectaries: https://www.botany.one/2014/07/sweet-nectar-gives-ferns-bitter-taste/
  19. I have had this fern for three years. There is an interesting sticky substance produced in perfect single spherical drops at almost every junction at the base of the leaflets. Detailed image and some structures dotted in a line above the drops. Some of the drops are a light sticky fluid, and some are like sticky rubber spheres. A lecanopteris curtisii is growing alongside this plant in the same conditions but I have not noticed the drops. Update: The L. curtisii has recently formed a few drops. Could this be a result of guttation, or possibly nectaries?
  20. Here's one of the piles of debris the ants placed around the alveoli. They seem very content and happy. As the fruit expands outward the ants progressively remove the rim on the fruit, the developing fruit are unharmed. They explore the flat top of the fruit often with their antennae. The pile is basically every component of the complex potting media I used for this plant along with what looks like flower pieces ( It is actually ant exoskeleton molts ) and moss. There is also a pollen sac in one cavity. 12 hours later, the fruit in the lower part of the image above is already expanding and ripening.
  21. The small green unripe fruit did grow and become orange quickly! Literally overnight as mentioned in this post: http://myrmecodia.invisionzone.com/gallery/image/19-m-salomonensis-ripe-fruit/
  22. I had flared out the stigma lobes to get a stigma lobe count. The three lobe count was actually from another myrmecodia; this other plant has a stigma with six lobes but fused in pairs to look like three lobes. I had it stored in an unlabelled vial. I wasn't sure if it was from this plant, now I know it is not. The flower image above is from a freshly extracted Myrmecodia cf. pulvinata flower that was not stored in an unlabelled vial and no room for error. At first the stigma resides closed in the space between the ring if hairs and the anthers. Then as the anthers expire the stigma elongates and opens into the space where the pollen and anthers are and reaches to the apex of the floral chamber. Much like a protandrous flower. I have read that protandry is also a method to spatially facilitate the development of the pollen release stage and then the stigma receptivity stage; to allow each stage to have the space to develop properly.
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