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  2. Yeah, I hadn't checked your book for it. Maybe I should have because I didn't know you were going to create a new entry. I could have caught that for you. For future reference I will reference it in the future. It shows that you've done a thorough job with your book. I shared the link because it was fascinating. I mainly find it interesting because this fern can get so much nutrition from the ants wouthout having much to offer the ants in exchange. Some of these plant names can change so much. The same plant with a different name. It helps to have a resource that lists the synonym, basionym etc. I like the research article. The research was performed under the name Antrophyum lanceolatum, It is evidence that there are many more unknown mutualistic relationships between ants and plants.
  3. Hi Tommy, Welcome to the forum. We hope you find the information here useful in your plant hobby. Growing ant-plants mounted requires more effort and diligence than growing in pots and is best attempted only when you have a high humidity growing area, say 75% and over. Your plant and the overall planting look very good. The mass of sphagnum is essential in this way of growing and you need to keep the moss constantly wet, or at least moist. This is what make this way of growing more high maintenance compared to pots. The yellowing and loss of lower leaves is not unusual when the plants are stressed - like when being repotted or getting too dry. Good growing
  4. Of course, what I should have done was to search for Antrophyum lanceolatum in the fern section of by E/book, which I would have found listed as a synonym under Polytaenium feei. Thus, saving me a few hours of work. Yes, I certainly cannot remember every name let alone the many details I have added to this large database.
  5. Hi everyone! I was gifted this beautiful Hydnophytum and wanted to mount it on some tree bark since that reminded me of what the plant looked like when I was traveling in Borneo last year. I put a fistful of sphagnum moss between the plant and the bark and then supported it with a wire. It seems the leaves are going yellow and dropping now. I'm not sure how moist I am supposed to keep it. In terms of light, it gets an hour or so of direct morning sun and then 400 foot candles of indirect light all day after that. Would love any tips people might have. Not a lot of info out there I can find!
  6. Lead up/down the garden path: to mislead or deceive. I didn't know what the phrase meant so I had to look it up.
  7. How to be led up the garden path. The name Antrophyum lanceolatum seemed familiar to me so I checked the index of my book but it was not listed there. I was therfore led to think that here was a new addition to the world of Epiphytic Myrmecophytes. However, I had already found and written about it under its correct name. Polytaenium feei (W. Schaffn. ex Fée) Maxon (William Ralph Maxon) in Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 6, p405. (1926.) (Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands) Basionym Antrophyum feei W. Schaffn. ex Fée (Johann Wilhelm (Guillermo) Schaffner ex Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fée. Synonyms. Polytaenium lanceolatum (L.) Benedict (Ralph Curtiss Benedict) in Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 38, p169. (1911) (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club.) Also, Antrophyum lanceolatum (L.) Kaulf. With the basionym of Hemionitis lanceolata L. (Carl von Linnaeus) a nomen illegitimum in Species Plantarum 2, p1077. (1753) (Sp. Pl.) Thus, all names based on this basionym are nomenclaturally illegal. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/359098#page/519/mode/1up Ecology. Although not strictly myrmecodomic, a study in Puerto Rica confirmed that this species benefited from the intimate presence of Pheidole flavens ants. Use of stable isotopes recorded increased nitrogen intake via roots from ant wastes. Watkins et al. (2008) as Antrophyum lanceolatum. Ants mediate nitrogen relations of an epiphytic fern. New Phytol. 180, pp5-8. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02606.x
  8. Pteridaceae. E.D.M. Kirchn. (E.D.M. Kirchner.) in Schul-Botanik, oder, Kurze Naturgeschichte der Pflanzen überhaupt p109. (1831). (Schul-Bot.) Not yet digitised. Antrophyum Kaulf. (Georg Friedrich Kaulfuss) in Enumeratio Filicum 197, p282. (1824). (Enum. Filic.), not yet digitised. Antrophyum lanceolatum (L.) Kaulf. In Enumeratio Filicum p198. (1824). (Enum. Filic.) Basionym. Hemionitis lanceolata L. (Carl von Linnaeus) in Species Plantarum 2: p1077. (1753). (Sp. Pl.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/359098#page/519/mode/1up Habit This Neotropical epiphytic fern species creates fibrous root masses that are used by ants especially the species Pheidole flavens for nesting. Ecology/Inbiota. “(W)e found that 62% of the sampled individuals of the epiphytic fern A. lanceolatum (Fig. 1a) harbored the ant species P. flavens in their rhizome mats (Fig. 1b,c). In larger fern individuals, these rhizome nests can contain over 100 individual ants and become filled with ant wastes.” “N contribution was considerable.” “Results from the two-end-member mixing model suggest that, on average, ant debris contributed 54.1% (45.6–62.6%) of the N budget of the plant.”. Ants mediate nitrogen relations of an epiphytic fern, pp forum 1-4, New Phytologist (2008) https://www.catherinecardelus.com/2008-watkins-et-al-new.pdf www.newphytologist.org Range. Widespread from Mexico, Caribbean, Central America and Northern South America. http://legacy.tropicos.org/Name/26607001?tab=distribution I thank Philpatrick for providing the heads up to this new addition to THE BOOK.
  9. All large tuberous were overhead and could not be observed well. The inside like a lattice is characteristic.
  10. Very far, ambiguous and sorry... But definitely think this species.
  11. I think M. tuberosa. Plobably ''pulvinata'' type. There are individual differences in spines development
  12. After reading the pages again, I found some of the spelling was different. "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins frequente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de três rares exceptions, on ne Tobserve que sur les nids de Camponotusfemoratis." Suggested spelling: "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins fréquente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de très rares exceptions, on ne l'observe que sur les nids de Camponotus femoratus." Suggested changes: frequente › fréquente (added accent mark "é") três › très ( changed accent mark from ê to è). Tobserve › l'observe Camponotusfemoratus › Camponotus femoratus
  13. Philpatrick and Jeff having helped with some French translations have influenced this posting here rather than in a 2020 edition of Epiphytic Myrmecophytes. Markea, Rich. (Louis Claude Marie Richard) Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, p107 (1792). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/163187#page/141/mode/1up Type Markea coccinea Rich. With Illustration, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/21792#page/264/mode/1up Andrés Orejuela et al. http://biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.167.2.1/8259 Sandra Knapp http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/640413#page/151/mode/1up Habit/Ecology/Infauna. Epiphytic or hemi-epiphytic sparsely branched vines or shrubs, often growing in arboreal ant gardens. Myrmecodomic species have short to long swollen stems with hollow domatia between internodes. Habitat. Most species grow in primary forests from sea level to 3000 m (9843 ft.). The highest diversity is found in the Colombian Andes (13 of 20 species currently recognized) and Ecuadorian Andes. Range from Panama to Bolivia and Southern Brazil (Knapp et al. 1997.) (Hunziker 1997 & 2001.) Probably those species that most interest us are from Amazonian lowland habitats. Markea coccinea Rich. (Louis Claude Marie Richard) Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, p107 (1792). https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/163187#page/141/mode/1up Synonym. Lamarkea coccinea (Rich) Pers. Collections. (1913) van Neil F, 263, Surinam; Sectie O. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526384 (1961) Schulz J. P. 9043, Surinam; J' savanne-Mapane area. (Suriname River.). https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526385 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526386 (1967) Borsboom, N.W.J. 12041, Surinam; B.S.H. ekspl. Patamacca. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526382 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526383 Ecology/Infauna. Ducke p55, (1915) Arbuste epiphyte presque grimpant rencontré très souvent sur les nids de la fourmi Camponotus femoratus (F.), par-fois sur ceux d'une Azteca. Peixeeboi (entre Belém et Bragança) Furo Macujubim (canaux de Breves) Rio Tapajoz en aval du 1st rapide. Était jusqu'iei seulement connu de la Guyane. Almost climbing epiphytic shrub often found on the nests of the Ant Camponotus femoratus (F.), sometimes on those of an Azteca. Peixeeboi (between Belem to Braganca) Furo Macujubim (Breves canals) Rio Tapajoz, downstream of the first rapid. Was so far only known in Guyana. Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Markea formicarum Dammer. (Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37, p170, (1905.) Types. Marary, Rio Jurua, Amazonas, Brazil (1900) Ule 5214. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Ule 5214, http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585084 https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L%20%200003610 Other collections. Ule 5693; (1902) São Joaquim on the Rio Negro, N. Brazil. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Synonym M. ciliata. ?3462. https://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/search?view=grid&q=Markea+formicarum (1985) South America; Venezuela; S.W. side of Cerro de la Neblina, Rio Negro. On Rio Baria (= Rio Mawarinuma) just upstream from base camp. Utrecht H. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/U.1745433 Epiphyte in ant nests. Granville, J-J de; Cremers, G A. #13143, French Guiana, (1995.) https://bioportal.naturalis.nl/specimen/U.1745517 Clarke, H. D; Williams R; Perry C. #7587 (1998) Epiphyte in ant nests. South America, Guyana, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo, Acarai Mts. (near camp at base) 4k. S of Sipu River. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/U.1745515 Spruce #2317 (1852) San Gabriel da Cachoeira, ad Rio Negro, N. Brazil. Endorsed M. formicarum Dammer. Synonym. Type of M. ciliata Spruce. http://www.tropicos.org/image/4153 M. ciliata Spruce, #2317 (Richard Spruce) (1908.) Herbarium placement with no publication details. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/29600899 M. ciliata Spruce #2317 possible Type, Brazil, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Rio Negro, (1852.) http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/specimen-details/?irn=559491 M. ciliata Spruce #2317, (1852). As possible type. Brazil, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Rio Negro, Northern Brazil. http://data.rbge.org.uk/herb/E00413953 Ecology/Infauna. Tuberiferous and myrmecophilous being regularly associated with Azteca ant species. The presence of ant domatia was reported by Spruce (1908) Ducke (1915) As Marckea (sic) formicarum. Epiphyte sur les nidd d' Azteca ; semble limitée à la moitié occidentale de l'Amazonie. Connue du Juruá et Juruá-miry et de S. Joaquim, Rio Negro. Epiphyte on the nests of Azteca, seems limited to the western half of the Amazon. Known from Jurua and Jurua -miry and from S. Joachim, Rio Negro. Ducke (1915), Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Weber NA (1943) Parabiosis in neotropical "ant gardens". Ecology 24(3): pp400-404. Whom was quite incorrect in believing that ants did not plant the seeds of ant garden plants. They surely do. https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2307/1930541 Orivel & Leroy (2011) list it as a true ant-garden epiphyte. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae Range. Amazonian South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Guyane, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru (Type collected in Loreto Department, Mishuyacu (exact location unknown) but near Iquitos Town. Markea fosbergii Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) Kurtziana [Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, (Kurtziana 25, pp85/6 f.2), (1997). Holotype. Fosberg, F. R. & Giller M. #23179 (1945) Loja. Headwaters of N. fork of Río San Francisco, on crest E of Cordillera de Zamora (El Condor), 11k E of Loja, at 2825m (9268 ft.) Zamora-Chinchipe Province, Ecuador. https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.us01049838 Ecology/Infauna. Not confirmed as myrmecophytic. Range Ecuador. Markea longiflora Miers (John Miers) Annals and Magazine of Natural History, second series 4, p186, (1849). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/102947#page/210/mode/1up Synonym Markea camponoti Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, pp55/56, (1915) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/62/mode/1up Collections. (1862) Southern America; Surinam. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2874270 (1911) Southern America; French Guiana. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2874271 (1971) Brazil; Territoirio do Roraima, Indian trail from Surucucu, vicinity of Uaica airstrip, Rio Uraricoeira. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1526391 (2006) French Guiana; Kaw Mts., near Patawa, logging road. Small logging trail, left side from Mt. de Kaw road, 10 minutes beyond Patawa. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.4150390 (2006) Kaw Mts. Roadside, near eastern border of Tresor Reserve. https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.4150398 Ecology/Infauna. As M. camponoti Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, pp55/56, (1915) A note in Latin. Frutex in nidis formicae = Bush in the nests of ants. And Translation from French. “Almost climbing epiphytic shrub very often encountered on the nests of the Ant Camponotus femoratus (F.), sometimes on those of an Azteca. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Range, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil, and Ecuador. Markea panamense Paul Carpenter Standley published in Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11(2), (1930.) Synonym Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standley) Armando Theodoro Hunziker published in Kurtziana 10, (1977.) The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are probably used by ants for nests and storage. Range: Panama. Markea sessiliflora Ducke (Walter Adolpho Ducke) Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 1, p56, (1915). Type Ducke, MG15488 s.n.; no date; Brazil (MG) https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.f0bn002962 Type. Ducke, RB 18138 s.n.; no date; Brazil (B) https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.s05-9574 Synonym Markea porphyrobaphes Sandwith Other collections. (1929) Sandwith 279. Climber, overhanging creek. Flower creamy-yellow, purple within at base of tube. Guyana; Essequibo River; Moraballi Creek, near Bartica. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585082 (1929) Sandwith 518, Climber with rootlets, in swamp near right bank. Corona greenish-cream, purplish at base within. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000585083 Illustration Planche 19, https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/103/mode/1up Ecology/Infauna. Ducke (1915) “Almost always in the woods in humid habitat. epiphytic.” Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Vol.1 p56. (1915.) AND. "Cette espèce est beaucoup moins frequente que la M. Camponoti (sic) sauf de três rares exceptions, on ne Tobserve que sur les nids de Camponotus femoratis." This species is much less frequent than the M. camponoti; with rare exceptions it is observed on the nests of Camponotus femoratus. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up Dejean et al. (2018) Camponotus femoratus and C. irritabilis have a reputation as some of the world's most aggressive ant species, easily able to pierce human skin. They then inject formic acid into these wounds such that massed attacks are most uncomfortable. https://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Camponotus_femoratus Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior live together in arboreal ant gardens. This territorially-dominant association inhabited 20% of tree canopies sampled in Amazonian forest. Ant–plant relationships in the canopy of an Amazonian rainforest: the presence of an ant mosaic, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 125, issue 2, pp344–354, (2018.) Range, French Guiana. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly125 Markea spruceana A. T. Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) Kurtziana [Museo Botanico, Facultad de Ciencias. (Kurtziana 25, (1997)). Not online. Collections (1860) Spruce s.n. Ecuador “Pulled down as we were riding through the forest. These are the only leaves that caterpillars had not quite eaten up - they seem to be 6 from the apex of a ramulus - or are they leaflets? In devexo montis Chimborazo supra tablas, (On slopes of Chimborazo (volcano) on tablas (?) at 2438m (8000ft.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimborazo Kew H. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/detailsQuery.do?barcode=K000201977 Habitat from 2200-2650m (7218-8694ft.) in montane wet (cloud) forest at Parroquia: (near the Nono - Mindo Road) in El Pahuma Orchid Reserve, 17k E of Nanegalito. Trail from "La Guarida del Oso" to "Sendero de Los Yumbos", Quito, Pichincha Province, Ecuador, South America. Habitat notes http://www.ceiba.org/elpabirdreport.htm Range, Endemic to Ecuador (Bolivar & Pichincha Provinces.) Markea ulei (Dammer) Cuatrec. (José Cuatrecasas) Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 61(1), pp78/9. (1958) (Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.). Subscription required http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/fedr.v61:1/issuetoc Basionym Ectozoma ulei Dammer (Carl Lebrecht Udo Dammer) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37(2), pp170/1, (1906 not 1905) (Bot. Jahrb. Syst.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/699#page/182/mode/1up Other Synonyms. Hawkesiophyton panamense (Standl.) Hunz. (Armando Theodoro Hunziker) using the basionym Markea panamense Standl. (Paul Carpenter Standley) Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 11 (2), pp127/8 (1930). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/33588#page/133/mode/1up Ectozoma pavonii Miers (John Miers.) Markea dimorpha C.V. Morton (Conrad Vernon Morton.) Habit/Ecology/Infauna. The swollen tuber-like stems and roots of this species are large, hollow and are very probably used by ants for nests and storage. Orivel & Leroy also list Markea ulei as a true ant-garden epiphyte. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Spermatophyta: Angiospermae) Myrmecological News 14, pp73-85. (2011) Spruce (1908) and Davidson & Epstein (1989) also report ant-domatia. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228473711_The_diversity_and_ecology_of_ant_gardens_Hymenoptera_Formicidae_Spermatophyta_Angiospermae Epiphyte sur les nids d'Azteca, le plus souvent dans la forêt périodiquement inondée; habite les parties centrales et occidentales de l'Amazonie. Dêcrit du haut Juruá et Juruá-miry, et des environs de Tarapoto; recemment encore collectionnè par E. Ule au Rio Acre et aux environs de Manoáos. Epiphyte on Azteca nests, most often in periodically flooded forest; lives in the central and western parts of the Amazon’ the upper Jurua and Jurua-miry and the surroundings of Tarapoto; recently still collected by E. Ule at Rio Acre and around Manaus. Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Vol.1 p55. (1915.) https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up Range. Panama (Barro Colorado Island), Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Page 57 lists other un-named epiphytic species on arboreal ant nests. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up SOLANACÉES EPIPHYTES SUR LES NIDS DE FOURMIS. = Epiphytic Solanaceae on the nests of ants. A: species 1: small green flowers on a nest of species of the genus Azteca. Central and western Amazonia. B: large flowers, long tube corolla. a): species 2: inflorescence lax (broad), pauciflorous (few flowers or inflorescences), pendulous, with often very long peduncle (to 40cm), slender, simple or two or even three times branched; pedicel 1-2 1/2 cm. Calyx green, corolla scarlet, flat limb, stamens of tube length. Often on the nests of Camponotus femoratus, sometimes on those of Azteca. "Hylaea" whole. b): flowers in the short and thick twigs (Aborted or metamorphosed twig that simulates a stem). Corolla of fundamental greenish or whitish color; stamens slightly longer than half the tube. species 3: petioles and basilar parts of the rib of the leaves, spongy, very thick. Sessile flowers, solitary at the end of short branches, often geminated (gathered in pairs). Uniformly green calyx; whitish green or yellowish corolla or even ivory white, almost actinomorphic (which exhibits radial symmetry). Almost always on the nests of Camponotus femoratus. Belem do Para and region between Belem and Braganca. Petioles and rib of leaves, herbaceous. Flower fairly long pedicelled. Corolla bilabiate, whitish green or yellowish, marbled purple brownish. species 4: inflorescence, racemo-cymose (flowers arranged in a cyme- with the main axis ending in a flower) with up to ten flowers. Whitish calyx, traversed by purple veins. On nests of Camponotus femoratus. Eastern half of the Amazon. species 5: geminous (gathered in pairs) or solitary flower. Uniformly green calyx. On the nests of species of the genus Azteca. Central and western Amazonia. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/63/mode/1up
  14. I have translate all the passages in french to english sheet 54-55-56-57 but we have also latin language on it 😉 jeff
  15. This article has some good information. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316666507_Phylogeny_of_the_tribes_Juanulloeae_and_Solandreae_Solanaceae
  16. Hi Robert, Do you know if I can still get or where i can get one? I'm in Brisbane. Thanks, Lola.
  17. Continuing the subject in my last post. With 790 members in my Facebook group I had asked for assistance translating any pertinent epiphytic/ant-plant notes in the document below from French to English. But as is usual, the response has been zero. I am able to translate much of it but there is always not knowing what one does not know. Thus, it would be helpful if someone with Francais as their first language could list any appropriate sentences in French along with a translation in English along with the species name the comments allude to. Archivos, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Plantes nouvelles ou peu connoes de la région amazonienne. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97675#page/61/mode/1up I have researched the taxonomy and found type species and correct modern names etc.
  18. Hi George, Welcome to the forum. We hope you find a lot of useful and interesting information here. Thanks for joining us. As to your H. puffii - you are right to be concerned - the shrinking of the caudex is not a good sign. (A caudex is a swollen stem base -- a bulb is like an onion, a collection of closely wrapped leaves) . When you say "soil" we hope you do not mean soil as in what you plant a garden or regular houseplant in. These ant- plants are epiphytes - plants that live on the surface of another plant so their roots will die if they are planted in normal garden-like soil. They need to be grown in an epiphyte mix like most orchid growers use to grow orchids. Something made of bark chips, long fiber sphagnum, perlite, coconut husk chunks, etc - so that the roots stay moist but can still get air. If you passed the soil test and have the right growing media, the next thought is watering. When you water, water well, not just a little water at the surface. With epiphyte mix you can even set the pot in a small tray or container of water for 10 or 15 mintues, let all the soil components soak up their fill and than take the pot out and not water again for perhaps a week or so until the mix is close to dry again. Do you live where it is cold? If so and if what you are describing as your window growing is between the blinds and the window than your plant could be getting too cold at night Get it a little further from the window. Most of these ant-plants do not like getting below 60 Fahrenheit Cold can cause rot that often presents as a soft, shrinking caudex. Those are my thoughts on your problem based on the information you gave us. If these things I have described are not the possible problem tell us more about your growing situation, perhaps give us photos, and we will try again to help. Let me add that in my experience H. puffii is the poster child for an ant-plant that takes a definite winter rest for me (northern hemisphere, USA,Michigan). They have never grown for me during December to sometime in March or April. They just sit there and look pretty. Thanks again for joining the forum
  19. Hi, I'm new here. I have only had my puffier for a couple months. When I received the plant the "bulb" looked very healthy. But as time goes on I have noticed the "bulb" looks as though it is getting smaller as though it's drying out. It's in a window with blinds facing South. I water when I feel the "soil" drying. Leaves seem fine. I guess my main question is why is the "bulb" appear to be drying and getting smaller?
  20. Hi Bern, I grew it in a greenhouse in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA for about 7 years. It started out as a cutting on a piece of tree fern. When that started growing off the tree fern I nailed that to a tree trunk in the main conservatory and it has grown up that trunk about 8 feet. It has always had some of the bullate leaves but it has not flowered there. I know it got regular fertilizer, but I cannot say that it ever grew vigorously for me - perhaps that is why no flowers.
  21. Philpatrick recently provided me with an interesting link to myrmecophytic fig species, one of which is hypothesized to have evolved a way to provide arboreal ants with domatia building materials. A Facebook botanist/explorer friend has been providing photos of Philippine mistletoes with apparent ant relationships. His most recent photos suggest that material for domatias under construction on a Scurrula mistletoe are perhaps purposely provided by the mistletoe. Which of course suggests co-evolution. It surely suggests more study is required and one hopes my comments will encourage this. https://www.facebook.com/groups/philippineplants/ https://www.facebook.com/groups/498723016920977/ Leads recently provided by Jay have also provided much new information that will be covered in a 2020 edition of my e/book-database, especially in the "Other Plant Families" section.
  22. Thought I'd share photos of some plants grown from seed (purchased from Frank) over the past few years. Hydnophytum Papuanum: Myrmecodia Tuberosa: Myrmecodia species: Unknown (lost the label):
  23. Jay, I am quoting your last paragraph re Philodendron in THE BOOK. Appropriately credited and linked to this site of course. Thanks to this thread and Philpatrick's lead regarding myrmecophytic figs, I have more to keep me busy on rainy days. My Facebook Myrmecophyte group is currently attracting a new member every day, and from many corners of our planet, which is surely connected to the release of my e/book. One hopes that among the young, there will be the leaders of the future.
  24. Thanks to both for kind comments. Frank, hopefully we see greater interest in growing carefully thought out multispecies mounts by myrmecophyte collectors. The orchid growing community have been sold "species sticks" by a few US nurseries for some time but they are usually just a hodgepodge of species tied on a manzanita branch and priced 3X. I have already shown some mounts I did in Guatemala with Myrmecodia tuberosa and some Malesian Dischidia spp. about 12 years back, but there is clearly a great deal of room for improvement on my efforts. Derrick, thanks very much for catching that vagrant "n". I usually snipe stray typos in the articles myself over time, but haven't yet had a chance to go over that one with a perfectly clear set of eyes. I think that outside of the research community, the line between a "mymecophyte guild" and an "ant garden" is a bit blurred. I view standalone myrmecophytic epiphytes growing in isolation as one end of the spectrum, and these giant, complex parabiotic ant carton-based communities at the other, with everything in between as being some sort of "ant garden" or other in the eyes of many entomologists and botanists. I hope that the images in the article showing mature Myrmecophila spp. as community anchors with "satellite" orchids and bromeliads growing in their immediate vicinity illustrate how variable these ant garden models can be in the Neotropics. These smaller ant-inhabited plants growing on the periphery of community probably both provide and derive defenses to/from the broader garden area dominated by cow horn orchids. I don't have any of my friends or colleagues assist in editing my work except when doing a joint publication so no complaints on that end. Everyone I know is busy trying to make a living and building their own image banks or online presence, so I try and lean on them as rarely as possible and solely to provide me with particular images I need in order to generate fully original content. Neither Fred nor Ron are particularly interested in myrmecophytes, but do encounter them in nature during the course of their fieldwork. These men are obviously most focused on orchids. In this particular case, both were at localities in LatAm with ant garden plants whose images I wanted and were able to take some fresh shots specifically requested for this piece, apart from retrieving a few others from their archives, as a special favor. Besides the species mentioned in the article, the 500 lb gorilla in the room as regards myrmecophytes, IMO, is Philodendron. This very large Neotropical aroid genus (~600 described species with well over 1,000 now believed to be out there), has MANY species with EFNs, succulent and semi-hollow petioles and birds-nest or otherwise litter trapping plant forms. I strongly believe that further research will reveal much closer relationships between some philos and ants than is currently documented. I also suspect that, as is known to be the case in some bromeliads, some are closely ant-associated and prone to self-pollinate at one locality and not at another. Best regards, J
  25. Yes, a truly fantastic article that I will need to study in detail. It provides new leads for additions to my 2020 edition and photos I would love to have access to. Would future book editions provide much better dissemination to the world's myrmecophyte fraternity of the invaluable information Jay and his contacts provide? Outside of the jargon filled world of academia there are very few information sources for the lay public. I certainly welcome others to assist or even take over my book project. I also welcome corrections or whatever, but feed back so far has been virtually zero. Indeed, have my efforts been a waste of my time? Yet from the constant rate of new members now joining my Facebook group from all over the world, it seems it is being spread widely. Incidentally, I promote all of the pertinent information platforms. Being partisan as some so evidently are, does NOT help the spread of knowledge. New World ant gardens were once better known than Old World examples, presumably because of easier access. Certainly it was thought (in Europe?) that ant gardens were only common in the New World tropics where most had long been studied (obviously rather poorly?). Dr Eve Kaufman (2003) in her ground breaking study found them to be abundant in the tropics of Southeast Asia." http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/volltexte/2003/273/pdf/KaufmannEva.pdf Feedback. Its correctly Dolichoderinae. The very large ant-garden sizes Jay quotes are certainly new to me and presumably to most if not all Old World field workers. Also, I am not aware if Australia has any ant gardens. I have never seen one or found a written record. We do have myrmecophyte guilds but that means little in this regard. Already my 2019 edition is being superseded. For example, explorer botanist Mark Gregory Rule has provided photos of another Philippine mistletoe species with an ant inhabited haustorium. Of course, these photos raise more questions than answers without ecological study, but interest is being raised among those with access to these plant's habitats. Jay. Are your contacts working in the field sufficiently interested to read my book/data base and provide pertinent comments and habitat photos?
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