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  2. Derrick

    Myrmecophila tibicinis

    Robert. I doubt this is M. tibicinis.
  3. Robert Pulvirenti

    Myrmecophila tibicinis

    Thought I would add a photo of the flower of this lovely species which is growing on a palm tree trunk in my little rainforest paddock . As the trees are maturing I am starting to mount more epiphytes onto them and am growing some native aroid climbers to plant out soon.
  4. https://biocache.ala.org.au/occurrences/151fcb20-a39b-4cba-b8a8-ccf03066bf33 This site requests feedback yet it has completely ignored my numerous efforts to HELP them quickly and very easily correct a glaring error. Something here is not right. Is it fear of Rio Tinto? Is it academic arrogance? Is it bureaucratic incompetence? Such a mistake IS certainly an insult to the Australian botanical community but their responsible bureaucrats do nothing. Their arguments are that there is insufficient funds and the work load is too immense.
  5. Derrick, the Australian Botanists that are knowledgeable about Ant plants are aware of these populations and are also not happy with what is happening, unfortunately they can only make recommendations to the government about protecting key areas of the environment. It is up to the government to act on these recommendations and put more restrictions on Rio Tinto, so it is unfair to put the blame on Australian Botanists. At this very moment Cape York Myrmecodia beccarii are being studied and grown at Cairns University, in time they will be legally introduces into the hobby.
  6. Frank

    Hydnophytum sp. Malaybalay

    I grow two plants of Wistuba's "Hydnophytum sp Malaybalay" that his website describes as "Nice dark green and glossy leaves. Slow grower." I got my plants earlier this year from him. Here are a few photos of my plants. They are small and in 2-1/2 inch pots. They have the leaves he advertises - dark green and glossy. They have grown well for me and lost no leaves. Does your plant look like mine? If not, it would be helpful if you could post a picture(s) of yours. As to whether they are the same as the "Hydnophytum sp. Malaybalay" you gave the link to - I don't know. I think it is quite a reach to make that connection given the huge difference in age of the plants. I think we would need Andreas to tell us if they are one in the same. What say you Andreas?
  7. Frank


    Based on the list of collections for M. tuberosa 'rumphii' in the Huxley and Jebb revision of the genus Myrmecodia it does not appear that they are on Bali, nor expected there, because what plant localities are listed in the revision are a long way from Bali. I have no other experience or resources that would suggest rumphii is on Bali but that is not something I ever tried to find out or researched. We have a few members here from that area, perhaps one will have knowledge and speak up.
  8. Robert Pulvirenti

    Jay takes his ant-plants seriously!!!

    Derrick, I agree that photographing M.platytyrea in Mossman Gorge is fairly difficult as they are high up in the trees and the underside of the plants almost always come out dark in photos because of lighting through the canopy and the fact that you are below the plant in most instances. On the 8th of October 2018 I was in Mossman Gorge trying to get a descent photo of this plant in the wild with very limited success, about a 20 minute drive north of the gorge I called in on a very keen grower of plants with Ant-plants being some of his favorites. He has over the years collected many different forms and populations and introduced them into the hobby and is always in contact with Dr. Ashley Field, Rita Kupke and myself as well as growers of other types of native and exotic plants. This provided me with a unique opportunity to photograph the Mossman Gorge and Iron Range forms of M.platytyrea sub. antoinii within a couple of hours of each other, as he has the Iron Range form growing on trees in his garden as well as other species and forms from the Cape and locally. Below is an Iron Range M.platytyrea growing in a garden about a 20 minute drive north of Mossman Gorge. Next down is a close up of the Iron Range forms caudex. Next down is a photo of a large M.platytyrea sub. antoinii in situ in Mossman Gorge. Next down is a close up of the Mossman Gorge caudex and parts of the stems.
  9. On a recent trip to far north Queensland I called in on an Ant-plant grower of 30 odd years, who has also introduced many different native forms and populations to the hobby. Living as he does in the northern end of the wet tropics in the distribution area of the southern form of M.platytyrea sub.antoinii and also in the middle of the spiny form of M.beccarii coastal distribution, he grows his plants outside in his tropical garden where they thrive with the aid of the correct species of ants which are native to the area. He was keen to show me an unusual form of H.moseleyanum from a fairly dry area of Iron Range, this plant has slightly smaller and more succulent leaves than normal, develops prickles on parts of the caudex but its most unique feature is how its inflorescences are expressed on a peduncle. On returning home I sent photos of this plant to Dr Ashley Field at Cairns University who informed me that in his field trips to the Cape he had observed H.moseleyanum plants with smooth, bumpy, pimply or almost with spines on their caudex before but never with a flowering peduncle. He asked me if I had collected seed, as it would be interesting to see if this trait would continue in subsequent populations in cultivation, I did and have sent some to Rita Kupke to grow in her Nursery, kept some for myself and also sent some to a grower in the US. Dr. Ashley Field hopes to have a closer look at this cultivated plant next time he is in the Mossman/Daintree area. . The collector of this form in part of his garden. The overall plant. Close up of the caudex. Flowering and fruiting peduncle.
  10. Bonjour do you know the Bali's ant plant ? on this island may be some M.tuberosa 'rumphii' do you know if there are ? jeff
  11. mladaboleslaw

    Myrmecodia - roots? Care?

    Hello. I have a specimen Myrmecodia sp. Probably Myrmecodia echinata. She's been here for two years. I had various problems with her. Once he had too little light and too much water. Then, some mites and porcellio sp. Damaged her. I healed her for some time. It has a more breathable / breathable substrate, less water and much better light for plants. She released a new impetus and beautiful new leaves. There have been no rootlets for a long time. I do not know why. Is there a chance that it will still release the roots? What could be wrong? I apologize for my bad English.
  12. Derrick

    Jay takes his ant-plants seriously!!!

    First a very sincere thank you to Jay for this magnificent work. One thing I can add about the Mossman Gorge population of Myrmecodia platytyrea subsp antoinii is that its location in the wet tropics is very different from its usual locations in the monsoon rain-forests that are extremely widespread to the far north. The wet tropics do not have a very distinct 'winter' dry season while the harshest monsoon rain-forests and savannahs have 'winter' dry seasons that can last for about seven months. I have only been able to observe and photograph Mossman specimens perched high in heavily epiphyte and liane burdened trees, so I have not been able to closely compare their forms. However, suffice to say they differed from all northern populations, and I have seen these over enormous regions of Cape York Peninsula, Australia.
  13. Ready for some fabulous reading accompanied by great photos and exquisite artwork! There is a marvelous new website and blog online hosted by one of our most knowledgeable and valuable members, Jay Vannini. It is his "Exotica Esoterica" and it is at: https://www.exoticaesoterica.com/ After looking around there for only a few minutes you will see that Jay is an expert at more than just our ant-plants. His initial article about ant-plants - "The Big Five: Commonly-cultivated Caudexed Ant Plants" is fantastic. And he has promised more such ant-plant information will follow! Go read this article right now. It has the history of our hobby woven in with specific details about many of the plants we grow as well as cultural notes about how he grows them. And we all know from his posts here that he grows them very, very well! https://www.exoticaesoterica.com/caudexed-ant-plants/2018/7/26/the-big-five Thanks very much Jay
  14. Does anyone else grow this plant? I assume it is the same one from this thread. Does it prefer highland, intermediate, or lowland conditions? How much moisture and humidity does it like? I've been growing the plant for about a year and a half, and while it's grown a significant amount of root mass and the caudex has expanded somewhat, it doesn't seem to want to keep more than two leaves at a time.
  15. Derrick

    Improve your cultivation of the Hydnophytinae

    I have just received this email from ecoguide Enoch Bulunamur resident of Breakthrough Mission, Siasiada Village, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. The mission has guest bungalows that earn income to support the communities primary school. Quote "The Scientific plant journal that you sent me finally arrived here in good condition. Though it took almost ages to reach me, I am so pleased to be in possession of one of your great works. Thank you so much for this gift, and the promotion the ant plant and people of this region have gained through your literature. Just one news, I managed to locate both Anthorrhiza bracteosa and A. areolata on the South coast from where I live. They just look slightly different from the ones on Normanby Island (etc). The funny thing is, instead of ants, huge possums also tunnel through and make their homes inside. Their tubers are so huge." Unquote. It is quite possible that such previously unrecorded mainland anthorrhizas may be genetically distinct from those on the islands off the NORTH coast of the Papuan (Birds tail) Peninsula.
  16. Philpatrick

    Myrmecodia pollen

    Pollen dimensions: ~110 μm x 54 μm. 40x objective. Myrmecodia species from Irian Jaya with winged clypeoli. Images of dry vesiculate pollen.
  17. Huxley and Jebb's 1993 Revision of the Genus Myrmecodia provides considerable information about the pollen of the various species. There is special equipment needed to see the microscopic pollen grains and a unique vocabulary needed for understanding the descriptions of the pollen. It would be nice to start developing some of this information to help with identifications of the plants. Here is a start on some of the terminology involved.
  18. Orchidman

    false scale on myrmecodia tuberosa

    The crystals only appear on the undersides of the leaves and as yet not at all on the new leaves. With the information here I am leaning to think the environmental change from the humidity changing from a varying 40% to 75 % in the greenhouse, depending on the time of day, to a constant 90% in the terrarium being the cause since the new leaves grew in this higher humidity and the older leaves growing at the lower humidity and then being moved to the new environment.
  19. Orchidman

    false scale on myrmecodia tuberosa

    These pictures do look very much like the issue with the seedling I originally brought up this issue about. As a follow up , when I returned the plant to the terrarium after washing the crystals off the leaves, the crystals again are forming on the bottom of the same (now older leaves). The newer two leaves are now larger than the original two leaves so the plants certainly seems happier than it was in the greenhouse. The two new leaves do not yet have these crystals forming on them. If it were due to any insect involvement you would expect it to occur on the new softer tissue of the new leaves not reoccurring on the older more hardened off tissue of the old leaves. Probably not due to insects!?
  20. Philpatrick

    false scale on myrmecodia tuberosa

    I did not record any magnification data and I will start to post that information. The microscope was a zoom stereo trinocular dissecting microscope on an articulating arm. The photoport is coupled with a camera body and a tethered flash gun is used for lighting. The articulating arm combined with a turn table makes it easy to navigate around to scope the plant. I will try to include measurements and use a microscope slide rule since the images have been resized and cropped. I took some pictures of the fluid before and after evaporation (1). I am not sure about composition. No fluid rushed out. I opened another "blister" with a hypodermic needle (2), the fluid inside quickly evaporates and large cell walls can be seen. (1) (2) When the ants explored them with their antennae It reminded me of how ants zone in on extrafloral nectaries of some Nepenthes. These are thicker areas on the undersides of the leaves (3) and (4). My guess is the thicker areas are formed when the process repeats on the same site or proximal, overlapping and creating a thicker layer. If it is cork tissue, I am working on images to visualize the suberin if present. (3) (4) Yes Frank you are correct, the top darker green photo is the flash illuminating the top of the leaf with reflected light. The lighter yellow photo is the flash transmitting light through the leaf from behind. I took these pictures as an easy way to see if the blisters were symetrical on front as well as back. The dark shadows on the lighter image are mainly cast from the growths on the backside. The blisters can only be seen as an outline. Yes, the newly formed blisters are crystal clear. The plant is in a terrarium with high humidity. I had a question Orchidman, are the crystals on the top side of the leaf as well as the underside?
  21. Orchidman

    false scale on myrmecodia tuberosa

    These pictures do look very much like the issue with the seedling I originally brought up this issue about. As a follow up , when I returned the plant to the terrarium after washing the crystals off the leaves, the crystals again are forming on the bottom of the same (now older leaves). The newer two leaves are now larger than the original two leaves so the plants certainly seems happier than it was in the greenhouse. The two new leaves do not yet have these crystals forming on them. If it were due to any insect involvement you would expect it to occur on the new softer tissue of the new leaves not reoccurring on the older more hardened off tissue of the old leaves. Probably not due to insects!?
  22. Hi Philpatrick, Welcome to the forum. These are some fantastic observations and great photos. I know a lot of us here are not familiar with the technology you are using so I hope you will indulge us with answers to the questions that will surely come. Including right now from me!.....laughing.... What kind of microscope are you using please. I don't think this kind of magnification comes on a dissecting microscope? I know it would be very useful to us if you could indicate the magnification for each photograph next to it. How do you know the clear sacs are water filled - did you see liquid rush out when the ants bite the blisters? You say the ants were "chewing off the blisters" They were actually eating or carrying away the clear (epidermis I assume) that was the cover of the blisters? Do you think the ants were drinking or collecting the fluid in the blisters? A few of the blisters seem to have thicker, slightly brownish walls. Can you say that you think this is cork forming? Or perhaps some artifact of the way some blisters photograph? Are you confident (given the magnification you are using and the number of blisters you looked at) that there are no small mites or other vermin in the blisters that could be causing them? And finally on the last two photos: Am I correct that the top, darker green photo, is the top of the leaf being lit from above and the bottom yellower photo is still the top of the leaf but with no light from the top and only light from below? I need some help here, what have these two photos shown you, I do not know how to interpret what I am seeing. Well, I though that was all the help I needed here but after a half hour at this only now do my old eyes see some very clear, flatter looking circles on the photos! Are these the blisters just forming and all the other ones I have been looking at have been compromised by the ants? Sorry to ask so many questions - I may force you to write a book here......laughing..... Seriously, thank you very much !!!
  23. I suspect that one of the very best ways for cultivators to improve their skills is to see plants in their natural habitats. Certainly many of the photographs shown in ant-plant forums show specimens vastly different from how they are in nature. Here is an opportunity to see and photograph a variety of anthorrizas, dischidias, hoyas, hydnophytums and myrmecodias in their natural habitats. If only two ant-plant aficionados join, then the tour's main focus will be on such plants. However, there is also much more interesting wildlife to be seen in this truly fascinating place. New Guinea is usually an extremely expensive place to visit so this tour truly is an absolute bargain. For example, when I visited Rondon Lodge above Mt Hagen town, it cost US$1.000 per night. http://gondconnect.com.au/Index.asp?pagename=UPCOMING+TOURS&site=1&siteid=8283 MILNE BAY WILDLIFE TOUR 2018. This proposed trip will run between the 16th and 30th November 2018 and offers the unique opportunity to encounter a wonderful array of wildlife from this far eastern province of Papua New Guinea. Appart from mainland sites, we will also visit the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. This all inclusive tour cost ex Cairns, North Queensland is AU$5560 p/p twin share. Based on three participants. For further details and booking form, please go to our Papua New Guinea page.
  24. Philpatrick

    false scale on myrmecodia tuberosa

    Do these liquid filled "blisters" fit the description? I also have more images to make observations from with various types of corking. The ants that were roaming this Myrmecodia were chewing off the blisters and had to be road blocked to keep the blisters intact to photograph them. I coated the leaf petiole with petroleum jelly to barricade them. This worked, though I didn't know ants could jump to the leaf and I had to eliminate launch points. To determine if the blisters developed symmetrically on the back of the leaf, two images were taken frontlight and backlight respectively. Over time the blisters dehydrated leaving a spot with a wrinkled epidermis. More blisters formed overlapping previous blister sites.
  25. Orchidman

    false scale on myrmecodia tuberosa

    Thank you for your thoughts on this I am somewhat reassured and have put the plant back in the terrarium-like enclosure that it developed the issue in as it seems to be happy in that it grew the 2 new leaves. I had rubbed of and washed the undersides of the leaves right away and so no longer have the material to look at under a magnifying lens but if it occurs again I will not freakout so quickly and will look at it more closely and perhaps take a close-up picture. Because of the rather large orchid collection I have I was of course VERY concerned if it was a pest as treating the entire greenhouse for scale is an onerous task and one I like to avoid. Thanks again for you reply
  26. One of the first ant-plants I bought on eBay, back in 2000, arrived with what looked like scale on the undersides of the leaves. The seller assured me it was not scale and encouraged me to look at it with a microscope. Sure enough, they were corky scar tissue that sure looked like scale, but all the scraping of them that I did provided no evidence of living scale insects. I have never heard the phrase "false scale" used for this until this year, 2018. I would like to know where that phrase started?! The most common explanation I have seen over the last 18 years is that the corky scar tissue I described above is the result of wild fluctuations of humidity coupled with excess water available at the roots causing guard cells on the stomata in the epidermis of the leaves to burst and be replaced by corky scar tissue. (for more explanation and photos see the two topics at the bottom of this "Diseases and other Problems" page called "White spots on my ant-plant" and "Leaf scars"). More information about this Oedema (edema) and Intumescences can be found in this fact sheet from the University of Massachusetts: https://ag.umass.edu/greenhouse-floriculture/fact-sheets/oedema-intumescences. It concerns Geraniums and also talks about other crops effected by edema. Obviously there is not material written directly about ant-plants and these edema issues as ant-plants are not a multi-million or billion dollar industry like Geraniums and sweet potatoes. Much of the research on edema issues comes out to the University of Kansas and some of it is casting doubt on on the above explanation for certain crops. (this is mentioned in the U. Mass article cited above) A second explanation for the scaring and corky growths is damage from microscopic eriophyid/gall mites. See and read the Topic two below this one: "Help, problems with M. armata" for more information on this. Finally let me point out some information specifically about Myrmecodias, Humidity and Intumescences. It is in Chapter 5 of this historic book "Manual of Plant Diseases" from 1922. The Myrmecodia information begins on page 437, but the way it is written will probably require reading more of the chapter to get the full meaning of it. I want to thank a personal contact for leading me to this resource. I hope he will join us on this forum soon and contribute directly to this topic.
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